"The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged
by the way its animals are treated."

Mohandas K. Gandhi

Religious Thought about Animals

Compiled by Dr. Ron Epstein


I originally constructed this web site primarily for the benefit of the students in my classes at San Francisco State University, from which I am now retired. (I am currently a research professor at the Institute for World Religions in Berkeley, California.) I am leaving the site online in the hope that people will still find it to be useful. All of the material is copyrighted. Permission is granted for individual, single copy, personal use only. Please send suggestions, corrections, broken links, and inquiries about other use of the materials to me at epstein@sfsu.edu.


Religion and Animals Christianity and Animals
Hinduism and Animals Islam and Animals
Buddhism and Animals Resources for the Study of Religion
Judaism and Animals Resources on Animal Rights

Religion and Animals

Biospirituality and World Religions and Philosophies

"The Animal Liberation Movement and Global Spirituality" by Mira Foung

Regan, Tom, ed. Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1986.

Hinduism and Animals

Notes from the Field: Hinduism and Livestock

"Non‑violence and Animals," On Gandhi by Bart Gruzalski

Buddhism and Animals

Buddhist Resources on Vegetarianism and Animal Welfare

Judaism and Animals

Jews for Animal Rights

The Schwartz Collection on Judaism, Vegetarianism, and Animal Rights by Richard H. Schwartz, Ph.D.

"Kindness to Animals in Judaism"

Linzey, Andrew and Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. After Noah: Animals and the Liberation of Theology. London: Mowbray, 1997.    

Christianity and Animals

Christian Religion and Vegetarian Resources

Linzey, Andrew. Animal Theology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Linzey, Andrew and Regan, Tom, eds.  Animals and Christianity: a Book of Readings. NY: Crossroads, 1988.                                                       

Linzey, Andrew and Cohn-Sherbok, Dan. After Noah: Animals and the Liberation of Theology. London: Mowbray, 1997.     

Linzey, Andrew and Yamamoto, Dorothy, eds. Animals on the Agenda: Questions about Animals for Theology and Ethics. Urbana and Chicago: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1998.                    

Santmire, H. Paul. "St. Augustine's Theology of the Biophysical World." Ecological Consciousness. Schultz and Hughes, eds. Washington DC: UP of America, 1981.                 

White, Lynn Jr. "St. Francis and the Ecological Backlash."                              

Morowitz, Harold J. "Christianity Does Not Support Animal Welfare." Animal Rights: Opposing Viewpoints. Rohr, Janelle, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1989. 

Regan, Tom. "Christianity and Animal Rights: the Challenge and the Promise." Liberating Life: Contemporary Approaches to Ecological Theology. Charles Birch et. al., eds. Maryknoll: Orbis, 1990.                             

Islam and Animals

Islamic Concern and Vegetarianism

Islam and Vegetarianism

"Meat & Modernity" by Tarik Abdul-Rahman

Johnson-Davies, Denys. The Island of the Animals. Rpt. Austin: Univ of Texas Press, 1994.

General Resources on Animal Rights

Animal Concerns Community

Nature: Inside the Animal Mind

Ethics Updates: The Moral Status of Animals

How to Win an Argument with a Meat-Eater I

How to Win an Argument with a Meat-Eater II

Sorabji, Richard. Animal Minds and Human Morals: the Origins of the Western Debate. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993.

Midgley, Mary. Animals and Why They Matter. Rpt. Atlanta: Univ of Georgia Press, 1998.

Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. NY: New York Review Book (Random House), 1975.

Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley and Los Angeles:University of California Press, 1983.

Waldau, Paul. The Specter of Speciesism. Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

Page, George. Inside the Animal Mind. NY: Doubleday, 1999.

Greek, C. Ray and Greek, Jean Swingle. Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals. New York and London: Continuum, 2000.

de Waal, Frans. Good Natured: The origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge and London: Harvard UP, 1996.

Established May, 2001. Revised October, 2004.
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