I Ching or Book of Changes     translated by Richard Wilhelm

 31.  Hsien /  Influence (Wooing)

                  above   TUI   THE JOYOUS, LAKE
                  below   K&ecircN   KEEPING STILL, MOUNTAIN

  The name of the hexagram means "universal," "general," and in a figurative 
  sense "to influence," "to stimulate."  The upper trigram is Tui, the
Joyous; the 
  lower is K&ecircn, Keeping still.  By its persistent, quiet influence,
the lower, rigid 
  trigram stimulates the upper, weak trigram, which responds to this 
  stimulation cheerfully and joyously.  K&ecircn, the lower trigram, is the
  son; the upper, Tui, is the youngest daughter.  Thus the universal mutual 
  attraction between the sexes is represented.  In courtship, the masculine 
  principle must seize the initiative and place itself below the feminine 
     Just as the first part of book 1 begins with the hexagrams of heaven and 
  earth, the foundations of all that exists, the second part begins with the 
  hexagrams of courtship and marriage, the foundations of all social 

          THE JUDGMENT

          Influence.  Success.
          Perseverance furthers.
          To take a maiden to wife brings good fortune.

  The weak element is above, the strong below; hence their powers attract
  other, so that they unite. This brings about success, for all success
depends on 
  the effect of mutual attraction.  By keeping still within while
experiencing joy 
  without, one can prevent the joy from going to excess and hold it within 
  proper bounds.  This is the meaning of the added admonition, "Perseverance 
  furthers," for it is perseverance that makes the difference between
  and courtship;  in the latter the strong man takes a position inferior to
that of 
  the weak girl and shows consideration for her.  This attraction between 
  affinities is a general law of nature.  Heaven and earth attract each
other and 
  thus all creatures come into being.  Through such attraction the sage 
  influences men's hearts, and thus the world attains peace.  From the 
  attractions they exert we can learn the nature of all beings in heaven
and on 

          THE IMAGE

          A lake on  the mountain:
          The image of influence.
          Thus the superior man encourages people to approach him
          By his readiness to receive them.

  A mountain with a lake on its summit is stimulated by the moisture from 
  the lake.  It has this advantage because its summit does not jut out as a
  but is sunken.  The image counsels that the mind should be kept humble and 
  free, so that it may remain receptive to good advice.  People soon give up 
  counseling a man who thinks that he knows everything better than anyone 

          THE LINES

          Six at the beginning means:
          The influence shows itself in the big toe.

  A movement, before it is actually carried out, shows itself first in the
  The idea of an influence is already present, but is not immediately
apparent to 
  others.  As long as the intention has no visible effect, it is of no
importance to 
  the outside world and leads neither to good nor to evil.

          Six in the second place means:
          The influence shows itself in the calves of the legs.
          Tarrying brings good fortune.

  In movement, the calf of the leg follows the foot; by itself it can
neither go 
  forward nor stand still.  Since the movement is not self-governed, it
bodes ill.  
  One should wait quietly until one is impelled to action by a real
  Then one remains uninjured.

          Nine in the third place means:
          The influence shows itself in the thighs.
          Holds to that which follows it.
          To continue is humiliating.
  Every mood of the heart influences us to movement.  What the heart desires, 
  the thighs run after without a moment's hesitation; they hold to the heart, 
  which they follow.  In the life of man, however, acting on the spur of
  caprice is wrong and if continued leads to humiliation.  Three
  suggest themselves here. First, a man should not run precipitately after
all the 
  persons whom he would like to influence, but must be able to hold back 
  under certain circumstances.  As little should he yield immediately to
  whim of those in whose service he stands.  Finally, where the moods of  his 
  own heart are concerned, he should never ignore the possibility of
  for this is the basis of human freedom.

           Nine in the fourth place means:
             Perseverance brings good fortune.
             Remorse disappears.
             If a man is agitated in mind,
             And his thoughts go hither and thither,
             Only those friends 
             On whom he fixes his conscious thoughts
             Will follow.

  Here the place of the heart is reached.  The impulse that springs from this 
  source is the most important of all.  It is of particular concern that this 
  influence be constant and good; then, in spite of the danger arising from
  great susceptibility of the human heart, there will be no cause for
  When the quiet power of a man's own character is at work, the effects 
  produced are right.  All those who are receptive to the vibrations of
such a 
  spirit will then be influenced.  Influence over others should not express
  as a conscious and willed effort to manipulate them.  Through practicing
  conscious incitement, one becomes wrought up and is exhausted by the 
  eternal stress and strain.  Moreover, the effects produced are then
limited to 
  those on whom one's thoughts are consciously fixed.

           Nine in the fifth place means:
             The influence shows itself in the back of the neck.
             No remorse.

  The back of the neck is the most rigid part of the body.  When the
  shows itself there, the will remains firm and the influence does not lead
  confusion.  Hence remorse does not enter into consideration here.  What 
  takes place in the depths of one's being, in the unconscious mind.  It is
  that if we cannot be influenced ourselves, we cannot influence the outside 

          Six at the top means:
          The influence shows itself in the jaws, cheeks, and tongue.

  The most superficial way of trying to influence others is through talk
that has 
  nothing real behind it.  The influence produced by such mere tongue wagging 
  must necessarily remain insignificant.  Hence no indication is added 
  regarding good or bad fortune.

          32.  H&ecircng / Duration

                  above   CHEN   THE AROUSING, THUNDER
                  below   SUN     THE GENTLE, WIND

  The strong trigram Ch&ecircn is above, the weak trigram Sun below.  This 
  hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one.  In the latter we have
  here we have union as an enduring condition.  The two images are thunder 
  and wind, which are likewise constantly paired phenomena.  The lower 
  trigram indicates gentleness within; the upper, movement without.
     In the sphere of social relationships, the hexagram represents the
  of marriage as the enduring union of the sexes.  During courtship the young 
  man subordinates himself to the girl, but in marriage, which is
represented by 
  the coming together of the eldest son and the eldest daughter, the
husband is 
  the directing and moving force outside, while the wife, inside, is gentle

          THE JUDGMENT

          DURATION. Success.  No blame.
          Perseverance furthers.
          It furthers one to have somewhere to go.

  Duration is a state whose movement is not worn down by hindrances.  It is 
  not a state of rest, for mere standstill is regression.  Duration is
rather the self-
  contained and therefore self-renewing movement of an organized, firmly 
  integrated whole, taking place in accordance with immutable laws and 
  beginning anew at every ending.  The end is reached by an inward 
  movement, by inhalation, systole, contraction, and this movement turns into 
  a new beginning, in which the movement is directed outward, in exhalation, 
  diastole, expansion.
     Heavenly bodies exemplify duration.  They move in their fixed orbits,
  because of this their light-giving power endures.  The seasons of the year 
  follow a fixed law of change and transformation, hence can produce effects 
  that endure.
      So likewise the dedicated man embodies an enduring meaning in his way 
  of life, and thereby the world is formed.  In that which gives things their 
  duration, we can come to understand the nature of all beings in heaven and 
  on earth.

          THE IMAGE

          Thunder and wind:  the image of DURATION.
          Thus the superior man stands firm 
          And does not change has direction.

  Thunder rolls, and the wind blows; both are examples of extreme mobility 
  and so are seemingly the very opposite of duration, but the laws governing 
  their appearance and subsidence, their coming and going, endure. In the
  way the independence of the superior man is not based on rigidity and 
  immobility of character.  He always keeps abreast of the time and changes 
  with it.  What endures is the unswerving directive, the inner law of his 
  being, which determines all his actions.

          THE LINES

          Six at the beginning means:
          Seeking duration too hastily brings misfortune persistently.
          Nothing that would further.

  Whatever endures can be created only gradually by long-continued work and 
  careful reflection.  In the same sense Lao-tse says:  "If we wish to
  something, we must first let it fully expand."  He who demands too much at 
  once is acting precipitately, and because he attempts too much, he ends by 
  succeeding in nothing.

           Nine in the second place means:
            Remorse disappears.
  The situation is abnormal.  A man's force of character is greater than the 
  available material power.  Thus he might be afraid of allowing himself to 
  attempt something beyond his strength.  However, since it is the time of 
  DURATION, it is possible for him to control his inner strength and so to 
  avoid excess.  Cause for remorse then disappears.

          Nine in the third place means:
          He who does not give duration to his character
          Meets with disgrace.
          Persistent humiliation.

  If a man remains at the mercy of moods of hope or fear aroused by the outer 
  world, he loses his inner consistency of character.  Such inconsistency 
  invariably leads to distressing experiences.  These humiliations often come 
  from an unforeseen quarter.  Such experiences are not merely effects 
  produced by the external world, but logical consequences evoked by his own 

          Nine in the fourth place means:
          No game in the field.

  If we are in pursuit of game and want to get a shot at a quarry, we must
  about it in the right way. A man who persists in stalking game in a place 
  where there is none may wait forever without finding any.  Persistence in 
  search is not enough.  What is not sought in the right way is not found.

          Six in the fifth place means:
          Giving duration to one's character through perseverance.
          This is good fortune for a woman, misfortune for a man.

  A woman should follow a man her whole life long, but a man should at all 
  times hold to what is his duty at the given moment. Should he persistently 
  seek to conform to the woman, it would be a mistake for him. Accordingly it 
  is altogether right for a woman to hold conservatively to tradition, but
a  man 
  must always be flexible and adaptable and allow himself to be guided
solely by 
  what his duty requires

Ron Epstein

Research Professor                       Lecturer
Institute for World Religions        Philosophy Department
2304 McKinley Avenue                San Francisco State University
Berkeley, CA 94703                     1600 Holloway Avenue
(510) 848-3440                            (415) 338-3140
namofo@jps.net                            epstein@athena.sfsu.edu

"Genetic Engineering and Its Dangers":