I Ching or Book of Changes     translated by Richard Wilhelm

  37. Chia  /  The Family [The Clan]

                  above    SUN   THE GENTLE, WIND
                  below     LI      THE CLINGING, FIRE

  The hexagram represents the laws obtaining within the family.  The strong 
  line at the top represents the father, the lowest the son.  The strong
line in the 
  fifth place represents the husband, the yielding second line the wife.
On the 
  other hand, the tow strong lines in the fifth and the third place
represent two 
  brothers, and the two weak lines correlated with them in the fourth and the 
  second place stand for their respective wives. Thus all the connections and 
  relationships within the family find their appropriate expression. Each 
  individual line has the character according with its place. The fact that a 
  strong line occupies the sixth place-where a weak line might be expected-
  indicates very clearly the strong leadership that must come from the head
  the family.  The line is to be considered here not in its quality as the
sixth but 
  in its quality as the top line.  THE FAMILY shows the laws operative within 
  the household that, transferred to outside life, keep the state and the
world in 
  order.  The influence that goes out from within the family is represented
  the symbol of the wind created by fire.

          THE JUDGMENT

          THE FAMILY.  The perseverance of the woman furthers.

  The foundation of the family is the relationship between husband and wife.  
  The tie that hold the family together lies in the loyalty and
perseverance of 
  the wife. The tie that holds the family together lies in the loyalty and 
  perseverance of the wife.  Her place is within (second line), while that
of the 
  husband is without (fifth line).  It is in accord with the great laws of
  that husband and wife take their proper places.  Within the family a strong 
  authority is needed; this is represented by the parents.  If the father
is really a 
  father and the son a son, if the elder brother fulfills his position, and
  younger fulfills his, if the husband is really a husband and the wife a
  then the family is in order. When the family is in order, all the social 
  relationships of mankind will be in order.
     Three of the five social relationships are to be found within the
  between father and son, which is the relation of love, that between the 
  husband and wife, which is the relation of chaste conduct, and that between 
  elder and younger brother, which is the relation of correctness.  The
  reverence of the son is then carried over to the prince in the form of 
  faithfulness to duty; the affection and correctness of behavior existing 
  between the two brothers are extended to a friend in the form of loyalty,
  to a person of superior rank in the form of deference. The family is
society in 
  the embryo; it is the native soil on which performance of moral duty is
  early through natural affection, so that within a small circle a basis of
  practice is created, and this is later widened to include human
  in general.

          THE IMAGE

          Wind comes forth from fire:
          The image of THE FAMILY.
          Thus the superior man has substance in his words
          And duration in his way of life.

  Heat creates energy:  this is signified by the wind stirred up by the
fire and 
  issuing forth form it.  This represents influence working from within 
  outward.  The same thing is needed in the regulation of the family.  Here
  the influence on others must proceed form one's own person.  In order to be 
  capable of producing such an influence, one's words must have power, and 
  this they can have only if they are based on something real, just as flame 
  depends on its fuel  Words have influence only when they are pertinent and 
  clearly related to definite circumstances. General discourses and
  have no effect whatsoever.  Furthermore, the words must be supported by 
  one's entire conduct, just as the wind is made effective by am impression
  others that they can adapt and conform to it.  If words and conduct are
not in 
  accord and consistent, they will have no effect.

          THE LINES

          Nine at the beginning means:
          Firm seclusion within the family.
          Remorse disappears.

  The family must form a well-defined unit within which each member knows 
  his place.  From the beginning each child must be accustomed to firmly 
  established rules of order, before ever its will is directed to other
things.  If we 
  begin too late to enforce order, when the will of the child has already
  overindulged, the whims and passions, grown stronger with the years, offer 
  resistance and give cause for remorse.  If we insist on order from the
  occasions for remorse may arise-in general social life these are
  but the remorse always disappears again, and everything rights itself.  For 
  there is nothing  easily avoided and more difficult to carry through than 
  "breaking a child's will."

           Six  in the second place means:
             She should not follow her whims.
             She must attend within to the food.
             Perseverance brings good fortune.

  The wife must always be guided by the will of the master of the house, be
  father, husband, or grown son.  There, without having to look for them, she 
  has great and important duties.   She must attend to the nourishment of her 
  family and to the food for the sacrifice.  IN this way she becomes the
center of 
  the social and religious life of the family, and her perseverance in this 
  position brings good fortune to the whole house.  
     In relation to general conditions, the counsel here is to seek nothing
  means of force, but quietly to confine oneself to the duties at hand.

          Nine in the third place means:
          When tempers flare up in the family,
          Too great severity brings remorse.
          Good fortune nonetheless.
          When woman and chile dally and laugh
          It leads in the end to humiliation.

  In the family the proper mean between severity and indulgence ought to 
  prevail.  Too great severity toward one's own flesh and blood leads to 
  remorse.  The wise thing is to build strong dikes within which complete 
  freedom of movement is allowed each individual.  But in doubtful instances 
  too great severity, despite occasional mistakes, is preferable, because it 
  preserves discipline in the family, whereas too great weakness leads to 

          Six in the fourth place means:
          She is the treasure of the house.
          Great good fortune.

  It is upon the woman of the house that the well-being of the family
  Well-being prevails when expenditures and income are soundly balanced.  
  This leads to great good fortune.  In the sphere of public life, this
line refers to 
  the faithful steward whose measures further the general welfare.

           Nine in the fifth place means:
             As a king he approaches his family.
             Fear not.
             Good fortune.

  A king is the symbol of a fatherly man who is richly endowed in mind.  He 
  does nothing to make himself feared; on the contrary, the whole family can 
  trust him, because love governs their intercourse.  His character of itself 
  exercises the right influence.

          Nine at the top means:
          His work commands respect.'
          In the end good fortune comes.

  In the last analysis, order within the family depends on the character of
  master of the house.  If he cultivates his personality so that it works 
  impressively through the force of inner truth, all goes well with the
  In a ruling position one must of his own accord assume responsibility.

Ron Epstein

Research Professor                       Lecturer
Institute for World Religions        Philosophy Department
2304 McKinley Avenue                San Francisco State University
Berkeley, CA 94703                     1600 Holloway Avenue
(510) 848-3440                            (415) 338-3140
namofo@jps.net                            epstein@athena.sfsu.edu

"Genetic Engineering and Its Dangers":