"VERSES DELINEATING THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES"
by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang of the Tang Dynasty
Translation and Explanation by Ron Epstein
 

I. INTRODUCTION

The work, written by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang (AD 596-664) at the request of his foremost disciple and successor Dharma Master Kuiji (AD 632-682), is a summary of the doctrine contained in Xuanzang's most celebrated work, Treatise on Consciousness-Only. The Treatise on Consciousness-Only is a commentary on the Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only by the Bodhisattva Vasubandhu (fl. 4th cent AD). The Treatise is based on the Sanskrit commentary of the Venerable Dharmapala (fl. 6th cent. AD) and nine other Indian masters. Dharmapala was the teacher of Master Xuanzang's own teacher, Silabhadra, the Abbot of Nalanda Monastery in India. Vasubandhu's Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only is in turn a verse summary of the major systematic work of the Consciousness-Only, the Treatise on the Stages of Yoga Practice, which is alternately attributed to Vasubandhu's older brother the Bodhisattva Asanga (fl. 4th cent. AD) according to the Tibetan tradition or to Asanga's supramundane master the Bodhisattva Maitreya according to the Chinese tradition. At any rate according to Xuanzang's biography (Huili, Life of Hsuan Tsang) Asanga entered samadhi and ascended to the inner courtyard of the Tusita Heaven to learn the doctrine of Consciousness-Only from the Bodhisattva Maitreya.

In brief, the "Verses Delineating the Eight Consciousnesses" is a verse summary of a commentary on a verse summary of the Treatise on the Stages of Yoga Practice. Only a simple explanation of the meaning of the lines of the Verses is presented here.

Viewpoint

The starting point of the Consciousness-Only School is that everything is created from the mind as is "consciousness-only". Everything, from birth and death to the cause of attaining nirvana, is based upon the coming into being and the ceasing to be of consciousnesss, that is, of distinctions in the mind. Consciousness-Only doctrine is characterized by its extensive and sophisticated inquiry into the characteristics of dharmas. For if we can distinguish what is real from what is unreal, if we can distinguish what is distinction-making consciousness and not mistake it for the originally clear, pure, bright enlightened mind, then we can quickly leave the former and dwell in the latter.

Chan Master Hanshan (AD 1546-1623) has said, "When Consciousness-Only was made known to them (i.e., those of the Hinayana vehicles), they knew that [all dharmas] had no existence independent from their own minds. If one does not see the mind with the mind, then no characteristic can be got at. Therefore, in developing the spiritual skill necessary for meditative inquiry, people are taught to look into what is apart from heart, mind, and consciousness and to seek for what is apart from the states of unreal (polluted) thinking."

II. TRANSLATION

"VERSES DELINEATING THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES"
by Tripitaka Master Xuanzang of the Tang Dynasty

PART ONE: THE FIRST FIVE CONSCIOUSNESSES

The direct, veridical perception of natural states can involve any of the Three Natures.
Three consciousnesses--eyes, ears, and body--occupy two grounds.
[They interact with] the universally interctive, the particular states, the eleven wholesome;
Two intermediate grade, eight major grade, greed, anger, and foolishness.

The five consciousnesses are all supported by organs of pure form.
That with nine preconditions and those with seven and eight are close neighbors.
Three perceive the world of defilement by contact and two perceive it at a distance.
The foolish have difficulty distinguishing consciousness from organ.

The transformation of the perceived division in the contemplation of emptiness is merely Later Attained Wisdom.
At the fruition, if there is still self, there is not total truth. At the initial emergence of perfect clarity, the stage of no outflows is realized.
Using Three Kinds of Transformation Bodies, one brings the wheel of suffering to rest.

PART TWO: THE SIXTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Having Three Natures and with Three Modes of Knowledge, it pervades the Three States.
As it turns on the wheel, it easily comes to know the Three Realms it turns within.
It interacts with all fifty-one Dharmas Interactive with the Mind.
Whenever it is wholesome or unwholesome, they make distinctions and accompany it.

Its Three Natures, the Three States it relates with, and its Three Kinds of Feeling are constantly in flux.
The basic and subsidiary afflictions together with faith and other wholesome dharmas always arise jointly with the sixth consciousness.
In physical action and in speech it is the most important.
It brings to completion by its ability to summon forth the power of karma that leads [to rebirth].

When the state of mind that is the initial phase of the Ground of Rejoicing arises,
Innate attachments still spontaneously appear as bonds and latent tendencies.
After the Far-reaching Ground, it is purified and without outflows.
When the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation becomes fully bright, it illuminates the universe.
 

PART THREE: THE SEVENTH CONSCIOUSNESS

The state of transposed substance that has the obscuring indeterminate nature is the connection between the sentience and the basis.
According with conditions and attached to self, its mode of knowledge is fallacy.
The eight major-grade derivative afflictions; the universally interactive; of the particular states, judgment;
Self-love; self-delusion; view of self; and self-conceit all interact and accord with it.

It continuously focuses its mental activity on inquiry which results in the characteristic that is self.
Day and night it reduces sentient beings to a state of confusion. The Four Delusions and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative Afflictions arise interacting with it.
When the sixth consciousness is functioning, the seventh is called the basis of defilement and purity.

During the initial phase of the Ground of Extreme Rejoicing, the Wisdom whose Nature is Equality begins to appear.
Practice becomes effortless and the self is destroyed for good.
The Thus Come One appears [in a body] for the Enjoyment of Others
As an opportunity for Bodhisattvas of the Tenth Ground.
 

PART FOUR: THE EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Its nature is exclusively the non-obscuring indeterminate, and it interacts with the five Universally Interactive Dharmas.
The Three Realms with their Nine Grounds come into being in accord with the power of karma.
Because of their confused attachments, those of the Two Vehicles don't comprehend it;
And based upon those attachments, there arise the disputes of the sastra masters.

How vast and unfathomable is the threefold alaya!
Generated by the winds of states, seven waves arise from its depths.
It undergoes perfuming and contains the seeds of the body with its organs and of the material world.
After going and before coming, it's in control.

Before the Unmoving Ground attachment to the storehouse is finally relinquished.
Upon completion of the vajra Path, it is empty of the ripening of results.
The Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom and the undefiled consciousness are produced at the same time,
And in the ten directions universally illuminate the Buddha-fields as countless as motes of dust.
 

III. TEXT AND EXPLANATION
Explanation of the Title

VERSES DELINEATING THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

"Verses". The work is written in verse so that it can be easily remembered. However, it is not so easily understood without
an explanation or without having first studied the doctrinal

teachings extensively

The verses are divided into four sections of twelve lines

each. The first section explains the first five consciousnesses,

and the remaining three explain the sixth, seventh and eighth

consciousnesses respectively. The first eight lines of each

section explain the normal characteristics and functioning of the

consciousness, while the final four lines explain the

characteristics and functioning after the transformation of

consciousness into wisdom.

"Delineating". The Chinese, gwei jyu, literally means compass

and T-square. In other words the verses map for us the boundariesand characteristics of the eight consciousnesses.
 
 

"Eight consciousnesses." Consciousness is used exclusively

in the sense of distinction-making activities of the mind, which

include both the mking of the distinctions and the distinctions

made. Conscious awareness and what is normally unconscious are

both considered aspects of consciousness in the Buddhist sense of

the word.

The eight consciousnesses are:

1) eye-consciousness or seeing,

2) ear-consciousness or hearing,

3) nose-consciousness or smelling,

4) tongue-consciousness or tasting,

5) body-consciousness or tactile feeling,

6) mind-consciousness or cognition,

7) manas, the defiling mind-consciousness which is the

faculty of mind, and

8) alaya, or storehouse, consciousness.

They are described in detail in the discussion of the verses

themselves.

The Author

By Tripitaka Master Sywan-Dzang of the Tang Dynasty

Tripitaka is Sanskrit word meaning "three baskets". It refers

to the Buddhist canon with its three divisions--sutra, vinaya, and

abhidharma. A tripitaka master is one who has thoroughly mastered

all three divisions. Tripitaka Master Sywan-Dzang was one of the

foremost translators of Chinese Buddhist texts and a great

enlightened master in his own right. He lived during the early Tang

Dynasty, a golden age for Buddhism in China. During his early

years as a monk in China he became aware of a number of doctrinal

controversies concerning the Mahayana teachings, particularly those

of the Yogacara. He then decided to journey to India to resolve

his own doubts and to bring back authoritative texts that would

help establish the correct teachings in China. After his fourteen

(or according to some, seventeen) year journey, he established a

translation bureau under imperial patronage. He succeeded intranslating the major Yogacara texts as well as many others. His

teachings and translations served as the foundation for what was

considered the orthodox Consciousness-Only School in China.

The Text

PART ONE: THE FIRST FIVE CONSCIOUSNESSES

The direct, veridical perception of natural states can involve

any of the Three Natures

All distinction-making consciousness, has as its most basic

distinction that of subject and object. The functioning of the

subject-component of consciousness is also of three types,knownas

the Three Modes of Knowledge. Direct, veridical perception is the

first. The others are inference and fallacy. Fallacy includes

dreams and hallucinations. Only veridical perception functions

within the fields of the five consciousnesses (seeing, hearing,

smelling, tasting, and touching).

Likewise, a state refers to the object-component of

consciousness. The object component is classified as being one of

the Three Kinds of States:

1) natural state,

2) state of solitary impressions,

3) state of transposed substance.

The natural state refers to states--the perceived aspects of

consciousness--as they really are, that is, undistorted by the

attachment to self and other or by attachment to dharmas. The

natural state is unconditioned by mental causation.

The second kind, solitary impressions, has no basis in the

states as they really are, but consists of imagined categories of

the sixth consciousness such as the hair of a turtle or the horns

of a rabbit. The third, the state of transposed substance, refers

to states that are distorted by false thinking and ultimately by

the mark of a self. Only the first of the Three Kinds of States,

the natural state, occurs in relation to the five consciousnesses.

Every moment of consciousness can also be characterized as

having a moral nature. Again the analysis is threefold. The Three

Natures are the wholesome, the unwholesome, and the indeterminate.

Consciousness characterized by a wholesome nature tends towards

the creation of good karma, whereas that of an unwholesome nature

tends to create evil karma. The indeterminate nature is neutral,

neither good nor evil. Since the five consciousnesses do notcontain the potential for making moral distinctions, by themselves

they are only indeterminate in nature.

Because the five consciousnesses always arise together with

the sixth consciousness, which does distinguish good and evil, the

five consciousnesses do partake of all three natures insofar as

they are intimately connected with the sixth consciousness. As the

first five consciousnesses function, the sixth consciousness

simultaneously makes moral determinations of their contents. Apart

from the activity of the sixth consciousness, the causal

relationship of the first five consciousnesses to their

states--sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile objects--is

exclusively in terms of direct veridical perception.

Three consciousnesses--eyes, ears, and body--occupy two grounds.

The analysis now moves to what we might call the "vertical"

dimension and informs about the levels of the conditioned world on

which the five consciousnesses arise. The "two grounds" refer to

the first two of the Nine Grounds. The Nine Grounds are as follows:

a) the first ground is comprised of the realm of

desire, which includes the five destinies of hell-beings,

hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, humans and the six desire heaven

portion of the destiny of the gods;

b) the second, third, fourth, and fifth grounds are

the Four Dhyana Heavens; and

c) the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grounds are the

Four Stations of Emptiness.
 

THE NINE GROUNDS

=================================================================

The Formless Realms 9. Neither Cognition

nor Non-cognition

(also known as the Four

Stations of Emptiness) 8. Nothing Whatsoever

7. Infinite Consciousness

6. Infinite Space

_________________________________________________________________

The Realm of Form 5. Fourth Dhyana (Stageof Renounc-

ing Thought)

4. Third Dhyana (Stage of the Wonder-

ful Bliss of Being Apartfrom Joy)

3. Second Dhyana (Joyful Stage of the

Arising of Samadhi)

2. First Dhyana (Joyful Stage of

Leaving Production)

_________________________________________________________________

The Realm of Desire 1. Six Desire Heavens and

the destinies of humans,

asuras, animals, hungry ghosts, and

hell-dwellers.

===============================================================

All five consciousnesses function in the realm of desire, that

is, on the first ground. On the second ground eye-, ear-, and

body-consciousness function, but nose-consciousness and

tongue-consciousness do not function, because at that level (i.e.,

at the level of the first dhyana), the smell and taste objects of

perception do not exist, nor does the type of morsel-nourishment

which is connected with smell and taste. In the first dhyana

nourishment takes place through contact rather than through the

eating of meals comprised of morsels of food (the first of the four

types).

Ordinarily we think only of nourishing our bodies through the

intake of ordinary food and drink; however, the Buddhadharma

distinguishes Four Kinds of Nourishment:

1) Mouthfuls. This kind is distinguished by the nose and

tongue. Its substance is perceived through smell, taste, and

contact. This ordinary food, bodily nutriment, changes and decays.

It can be gross, solid, or fine. This kind of nourishment takes

place only in the realm of desire.

2) Mental Contact. This kind nourishes the body by contact

with joyous situations. In other words that the first six

consciousnesses--seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and

cognizing--can have special value as food. Nourishment by contact

does not exist independent of the fourth kind of nourishment (see

below).

3) Volition. When associated with the sixth consciousness,

volition can function as food. It is characterized by desire for

perceptual objects, thus aiding the five perceptual organs in

attaining their objects. It occurs in all three realms, but does

not exist independent of the fourth kind of nourishment. Therefore,

the sixth consciousness in itself can have special value as food.

4) Consciousness. According to the Mahayana it refers to the

eighth consciousness. It indicates that consciousness is capable

of nourishing the bodily life of sentient beings. Life feeds offthe eighth consciousness, the basic life force or life energy.

When that life-energy is exhausted, death occurs.

One of the basic ideas here is that the nourishment needed by

a being corresponds to its level of vital and conscious life .

Coarse food is effective nourishment for a coarse organism but is

of no use for a fine one. Higher and higher levels of life and

consciousness must be fed with progressively finer and finer kinds

of nourishment. Yet in the conditioned world even life on the

finest and highest level of consciousness must "eat".

Beyond the first dhyana, that is, on the third through ninth

grounds, none of the five consciousnesses arise.

THE GROUNDS ON WHICH THE CONSCIOUSNESSES ARISE

=================================================================

Consciousnesses: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Grounds

9. Neither Cognition nor

Non-Cognition X

8. Nothing Whatsoever P X X

7. Infinite Consciousness P X X

6. Infinite Space P X X

5. Fourth Dhyana P X X

4. Third Dhyana P X X

3. Second Dhyana X X X

2. First Dhyana X X X X X X

1. Realm of Desire:

Six Desire Heavens X X X X X X X X

Ordinary Human

Consciousness X X X X X X X X

...

Avici Hell P X X

P = PARTIAL X = COMPLETE

=================================================================

[They interact with] the universally interactive, the

particular states, the eleven wholesome;

Two intermediate grade, eight major grade, greed, anger, and

foolishness.

The five consciousnesses are called mind-dharmas as are all

of the eight consciousnesses. The five interact with thirty-one

Dharmas Interactive with the Mind. Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind arise from the mind, that is, from mind-dharmas. They are

dependent upon mind-dharmas for their existence, and interact with

them. They represent a finer, secondary level of

distinction-making. The thirty-one are:

a) Five Universally Interactive: attention, contact, feeling,

conceptualization, and deliberation;

b) Five Particular States: desire, resolution,

recollection, concentration, and judgment;

c) Eleven Wholesome States: faith, vigor, shame, remorse, absence

of greed, absence of anger, absence of foolishness, light ease,

non-laxness, renunciation, and non-harming;

d) Two Intermediate-Grade Derivative

Afflictions: lack of shame and lack of remorse;

e) Eight Major-Grade Derivative Afflictions: lack of faith,

laziness, laxness, torpor, restlessness, distraction, improper

knowledge, and forgetfulness.

To say that the first five consciousnesses interact with these

dharmas means that when the first five consciousnesses are

functioning, any of these dharmas may arise and influence them.

The above dharmas are listed in the One Hundred Dharmas under

the second of the five categories: Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind. The other categories of the One Hundred Dharmas are: Mind

Dharmas, Form Dharmas, Dharmas not Interactive with the Mind, and

Unconditioned Dharmas. For further information on the One Hundred

Dharmas, see Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred

Dharmas by Vasubandhu Bodhisattva with Commentary of Tripitaka

Master Hua.

The five consciousnesses are all supported by organs of pure

form.

There are five perceptual organs--eyes, ears, nose, tongue,

and body--which are the basis or support of the activities of the

first five consciousnesses. Each organ has two portions. The first

is the physical organ and its neural pathways, which belongs to the

proximate perceived division of the eighth consciousness. Theperceived division of the eighth consciousness is divided into two

portions, the proximate and the distal. The proximate refers to

the physical aspect of the six faculties, while the distal refers

to the rest of the external world. In other words it is material;

it is categorized as form and is distinguished from other, distal,

forms, which are the objects of the organs' perception.

The second portion is the organ of pure form. The organ of

pure form refers to the organ of pure mental substance within the

physical organ. You don't smell with your physical nose organ but

with the organ of pure form within the physical nose organ. Pure

form refers to the state in which the Four Great Elements are in

perfect equilibrium. Pure form is imperceptible except through

the use of the Heavenly Eye.

That with nine preconditions and those with seven and eight are

close neighbors.

The five consciousnesses have seven, eight, or nine

preconditions for their coming into being. The five are grouped

together and are said to be "close neighbors" because their modes

of functioning are very similar in distinction to the other--sixth,

seventh, and eighth--consciousnesses. The number of causal

preconditions necessary for the rise of the eight consciousnesses

varies from nine to three among the eight consciousnesses. The

nine preconditions are: space, light, faculty, state, attention,

basis of discrimination, basis of defilement and purity,

fundamental basis, and seeds as basis. The basis of discrimination

refers to the sixth consciousness, the basis of defilement and

purity to the seventh consciousness, while the fundamental basis

and seeds as basis refer to the eighth consciousness.

All nine preconditions are necessary for the coming into being

of eye-consciousness, and so the verse refers to eye-consciousness

as "that with nine preconditions". Only eight (no light) are

necessary for ear-consciousness. For nose-, tongue-, and

body-consciousness, seven of the nine are required (no light and

no space). All five consciousnesses have in common their reliance

on the sixth, seventh, and eighth consciousnesses as preconditions

for their manifestation.
 
 

NECESSARY PRECONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONSCIOUSNESSES

=================================================================

CONSCIOUSNESSES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Preconditions

1. SPACE X X

2. LIGHT X

3. ORGAN X X X X X X

4. STATE X X X X X X

5. ATTENTION X X X X X X X X

6. BASIS OF

DISCRIMINATION X X X X X

7. BASIS OF

DEFILEMENT AND X X X X X X

PURITY

8. FUNDAMENTAL

BASIS X X X X X X X X

9. SEEDS AS BASIS X X X X X X X X

=================================================================

Three perceive the world of defilement by contact and two

perceive it at a distance.

Eyes and ears perceive at a distance, while nose, tongue, and

body perceive through contact.

The foolish have difficulty distinguishing consciousness from

organ.

"The foolish" refers to the Arhats and lesser beings of the

Hinayana teachings, who are unaware of the Three Divisions of the

Eighth Consciousness:the self-verifying division,the perceiver

division, and the perceived division. "Perceptual organs have the

capability of illuminating states, while consciousnesses have the

capability of making distinctions." (Quoted by Chan Master

Han-Shan, Sying-syang Tung-shwo.)
 

The transformation of the perceived division in the contemplation of emptiness is merely Later Attained Wisdom.

The objects of the five consciousnesses are the five

"defilers"--sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible objects.

They have their basis in the perceived division of the eighth

consciousness. That is, they are a development of the eighthconsciousness which takes place because of further distinction-

making. The five consciousnesses have their basis in the five

perceptual organs, that is, the organs of pure form and not the

physical organs. As explained above, the physical organ belongs

to the proximate portion of the perceived division, while the organ

of pure form belongs to the perceiver division. In the

contemplation discussed here, attachment to the perceived division

is broken by a change in the functioning of the organ of

At the fruition, if there is still self, there is not total

truth.

"At the fruition", refers to reaching the goal of one's

practice. If the enlightened awareness attained still contains the

distinction, however fine, of subject and object, then it is still

based on the perceiver division and not on the Buddha-mind.

At the initial emergence of perfect clarity, the state of no

outflows is realized.

"Perfect clarity" refers to the Great Mirror Wisdom. Although

on the Eighth Ground the eighth consciousness continues to act as

the supporting basis for the extremely subtle spontaneous

affliction that the Bodhisattva purposely preserves as the vehicle

of his continued rebirth in the world, in every other sense the

eighth consciousness is undefiled and no longer the cause of

rebirth. From the latter point of view, the Eighth Ground marks the

beginning of the laying of the groundwork for the Great Mirror

Wisdom, which is fully realized at Buddhahood. "Initial emergence"

means that on the Eighth Ground the process of the transformation

of the eighth consciousness into the Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom

begins. At that time "the state of no outflows" is realized" as

the innate attachment to self is eliminated.

Using Three Kinds of Transformation Bodies, one brings the wheel

of suffering to rest.

As the eighth consciousness is transformed into the Great

Perfect Mirror Wisdom, the first five consciousnesses are

simultaneously transformed into the Wisdom of Sucessful

Performance. This wisdom is characterized by pure and unimpeded

functioning in its relation to the organs and their objects. In

other words in their teaching and taking living beings across to

the other shore, the Buddhas' use of their seeing, hearing,

smelling, tasting, and touching is completely devoid of attachment

or distortion.

The transformation-bodies are bodies which are created using

spiritual powers and which are transformations or emanations fromthe Dharma-body of the Buddha. (Three Aspects of the Dharma Body

are explained below in the section on the eighth consciousness.)

The Buddhas expediently display for living beings Three Kinds of

Transformation Bodies: 1) a great transformation body to teach the

great Bodhisattvas on the tenth ground (equivalent to the Reward

Body), 2) a small transformation body--the sixteen "foot" physical

body of the Buddha Shakyamuni, and 3) bodies which take on

appearance in accordance with the species of living being taught.

The perceptual functioning of these bodies is accomplished through

the use of the Wisdom of Successful Performance.
 

PART TWO: THE SIXTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Below, the first four lines discuss the range of the sixth

consciousness; the second four discuss its role in the creation of

karma and in the resultant karmic activity. The final four explain

its transformation into wisdom.

Having Three Natures and with Three Modes of Knowledge, it

pervades the Three States.

The Three Natures are the wholesome, the unwholesome, and the

indeterminate.

The Three Modes of Knowledge are direct perception, inference

and fallacy.

The Three States are the natural state, the state of solitary

impressions, and the state of transposed substance. They have

already been explained above (see Part One, line one).

The sixth consciousness uses all three modes of knowledge in

its awareness of the three states. The Three Natures

refers to classification of the moral nature of its activity. The

distinction-making of the sixth consciousness is considered to be

of a wholesome nature if it is beneficial. Such activity arises

karmically as a result of good roots, that is, it is the fruition

of the seeds planted by wholesome activity in the past. The

situation is the opposite for distinction-making of an unwholesome

nature. Indeterminate distinction-making is neither beneficial nor

non-beneficial and arises from past activity that was

correspondingly so.

The last type, the indeterminate nature, is divided into the

obscuring indeterminate nature and the non-obscuring indeterminate

nature; they will be explained below in the section

ontheseventhconsciousness.

As it turns on the wheel, it easily comes to know the Three

Realms it turns within.

The Three Realms are the realm of desire, the realm of form,

and the formless realm.

What causes our revolving within the Three Realms on the wheel

of the Six Destinies are the distinctions made in the sixth

consciousness. The distinctions lead to karmic activity and then

to karmic retribution. Because of its great power of making

distinctions, the sixth consciousness easily distinguishes and

classifies the different states--environments--of the realms with

which it comes into contact.

It interacts with all fifty-one Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind.

The sixth consciousness interacts with all fifty-one of the

Dharmas Interactive with the Mind. The fifty-one are listed in the

appendix on the One Hundred Dharmas and are described in the

Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas.

Whenever it is wholesome or unwholesome, they make distinctions

and accompany it.

When the activity of the sixth consciousness is wholesome, it

is accompanied by the Eleven Wholesome Dharmas of the One Hundred

Dharmas. When its activity is unwholesome, the dharmas of

affliction arise in conjunction with it.

Its Three Natures, the Three States it relates with, and its

Three Kinds of Feeling are constantly in flux.

In other words the moral classification, and so forth, of the

sixth consciousness changes from moment to moment. The sixth

consciousness is involved in a constant flux of distinction-making.

In the case of the Three Natures, wholesome, unwholesome, and

indeterminate indicate the moral categories od its activity; in the

case of the Three States--the natural, and those of solitary

impressions and of transposed substance--the categories indicate

degrees of reality; and in the case of the Three Kinds of Feeling,

the distinctions of pleasure, of pain, and of neutral feelings

classify the emotional and perceptual experiences we undergo on

their most fundamental level of reception. One difference between

the Three Natures and the Three Kinds of Feeling is that the former

is an analysis of causal activity and the latter is an analysis of

experiential effect.

The basic and subsidiary afflictions together with faith and other wholesome dharmas always arise jointly with the sixth

consciousness.

The afflictions and wholesome dharmas are all dependent upon

the sixth consciousness. In other words they are not really

separate from it but represent further categorization of

distinctions within it. However, as explained above, depending on

the nature of the sixth consciousness at any particular moment, the

afflictions and the wholesome dharmas do not necessarily all arise

together, that is, at the same time.

In physical action and in speech it is the most important.

In the creation of karma the volitional activity of the sixth

consciousness plays the most important role. Examination and

decision, which are both functions of the sixth consciousness, lead

to activity, which creates both speech and bodily karma.

It brings to completion by its ability to summon forth the power

of karma that leads [to rebirth].

This line further explains the karma-generating power of the

sixth consciousness. It brings about karmic activity that leads to

retribution, which is the completion of the three-stage karmic

process: 1) giving rise to delusion, 2) creating karma, and 3)

undergoing retribution. When karma is created, seeds are planted

in the eighth consciousness. At the time of rebirth it is the

ripening of those seeds, "the power of karma", that draws the

eighth consciousness back into the suffering of the Six Paths of

Rebirth.

When the state of mind that is the initial phase of the Ground of

Rejoicing arises,

The Ground of Rejoicing is the first of the Ten Grounds of

the Bodhisattva's Path. Each of the ten is divided into the

initial (or entering), dwelling, and departing phases.

Innate attachments still spontaneously appear as bonds and

latent tendencies.

The two major kinds of attachment, to self and to dharmas,

are further divided into two types: innate and distinguished.

Innate are present at birth, and distinguished are learned

subsequently. At this point, when the sixth consciousness begins

to be transformed into the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation, thedistinguished attachments have already been eliminated. The

distinguished belong to the sixth consciousness, while the innate

ones are found in both sixth and seventh. The innate are slowly

eradicated up through the tenth ground. The latent tendencies refer

to the seeds of the affliction-obstacle and of the obstacle of the

knowable. Therefore, the line indicates that even at the point of

entrance onto the First Ground innate attachments still exist in

the sixth consciousness, both as manifest "bonds" and as latent

potentials or "seeds".

After the Far-reaching Ground, it is purified and without

outflows.

The Far-reaching Ground is the seventh ground of the

Bodhisattva. At the eighth ground, called the Unmoving Ground,

one is without outflows. The sixth consciousness's attachment to

the perceiver-division of the eighth, storehouse, consciousness as

being the Self is abandoned, so there is no longer any attachment

to self, only to dharmas.

How the seventh consciousness becomes attached to the

perceiver division of the eighth consciousness as the self is

explained in the initial section on the seventh consciousness.

When the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation becomes fully bright,

it illuminates the universe.

At Buddhahood the transformation of consciousness into wisdom

is completed, and the light of the Wisdom of Wonderful

Contemplation illuminates everywhere.
 

PART THREE: THE SEVENTH CONSCIOUSNESS

The state of transposed substance that has the obscuring

indeterminate nature is the connection between the sentience

and the basis.

The state of transposed substance has two modes: the real and

the seeming. Real transposed substance refers to the seventh

consciousness relating to the eighth consciousness by falsely

transposing the latter's perceiver division into a 'self'. That

'self' has no reality of its own, but is based upon the substance

of the perceiver division of the eighth consciousnesss. [The

seeming transposed substance refers to the sixth consciousness's

relations with external states.]

The obscuring indeterminate nature is one of two modes of theindeterminate nature, the third of the Three Natures. The other

mode is the non-obscuring indeterminate nature. Obscuring refers

to those states of consciousness that have the function of,

literally, 'covering' one's true nature. That is what the the

seventh consciousness does. As will be explained, it 'covers'--it

destorts the true nature of--the perceiver division of the eighth

consciousness. The non-obscuring nature refers to the perceived

division of the eighth consciousness. It is said to be

non-obscuring because it does not distort or obscure the true

nature of the mind.

In between the seventh consciousness--'sentience' in the

verse--and the perceiver division of the eighth

consciousness--'basis' in the verse--there arises a state of

transposed substance, which is the object of the seventh

consciousness and which is identified by the seventh consciousness

as being the 'self'. This is the process that obscures one's true

nature.

According with conditions and attached to self, its mode of

knowledge is fallacy.

As the seventh consciousness transmits information between

the eighth consciousness and the first six consciusnesses, it

overlays the information with self, thereby invovling the first

six consciousnesses in its own fallacy.

The 'conditions', or situation, are those described in the

first line: the state of transposed substance arising in between

the seventh and eighth consciousnesses.

The four types of attachment to self are described in line

four below.

Fallacy is the third of the Three Modes of Knowledge, already

mentioned above, the first two being direct, veridical perception

and inference. The seventh consciousness's attachment is innate

and, therefore, a fundamentally fallacious mode of knowledge; it

is not based on wrong inference as is the case with the sixth

consciousness's coarse, distinguished, attachment to self. (The

sixth consciousness also has a subtle, innate, attachment to self.)

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions; the universally

interactive; of the particular states, judgment;

Self-love; self-delusion; view of self; and self-conceit all

interact and accord with it.

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions are lack of

faith, laziness, laxness, torpor, restlessness, distraction,improper knowledge, and scatteredness.

The five universally interactive dharmas are attention,

contact, feeling, conceptualization, and deliberation.

Self-love, self-delusion, view of self, and self-conceit are

known as the Four Types of Delusion. The four arise because of

one of the Five Particular States, judgment, which refers to

decision-making based wholly on worldly knowledge which is defiled

by self. "Judgment" ceases to operate on the grounds of the sages,

that is, from the eighth ground on. 'It' refers to the seventh

consciousness. All of the eighteen dharmas listed here are

dependent upon the seventh consciousness for their existence and

all interact with it.

It continuously focuses its mental activity on inquiry which

results in the characteristic that is self.

The seventh consciousness, in conjunction with the

abovementioned mind-dependent dharmas, continously focuses on the

perceiver division of the eighth consciousness, inquires into its

nature, and erroneously ascertains that it is the true self.

In contradistinction to the other consciousnessess the seventh

consciousness both functions continuously and engages in mental

inquiry.

CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONING AND MENTAL INQUIRY IN RELATION TO THE EIGHT

CONSCIOUSNESSES

=================================================================

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

continuous functioning X X

mental inquiry X X

=================================================================

Day and night it reduces sentient beings to a state of

confusion.

It is the seventh consciousness that keeps beings revolving

on the wheel of rebirth. It is innate attachment to self that is

the basis of our continued rebirth.

The Four Delusions and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative

Afflictions arise interacting with it.

It is the Four Delusions, mentioned in line four above, and

the EightMajor-Grade Derivative Afflictions, mentioned in linethree above, that constitute "the state of confusion" of living

beings.

When the sixth consciousness is functioning, the seventh is

called the basis of defilement and purity.

The seventh consciousness is the mind-organ and as such is

the basis of the sixth consciousness, which distinguishes what is

defiled and what is pure.

During the initial phase of the Ground of Extreme Rejoicing, the

Wisdom whose Nature is Equality begins to appear.

The seventh consciousness automatically begins to be

transformed as the sixth is transformed. The seventh has no power

of its own to eliminate delusion, because its delusions are all

innate rather than distinguished. Through meditations utilizing

the sixth consciousness, attachment to self is eliminated, but

attachment to dharmas still remains.

Practice becomes effortless and the self is destroyed for good.

On the eighth ground of the Bodhisattva all further

cultivation is spontaneous and without personal effort because

there is no longer any self.

The Thus Come One appears [in a body] for the Enjoyment of Others

The Dharma-Body of a Buddha has three different aspects: 1)

the Body of Self-Mastery, 2) the Enjoyment Body, which in turn has

two aspects--self enjoyment and enjoyment of others, and 3)

transformation bodies.
 

As an opportunity for Bodhisattvas of the Tenth Ground.

The Buddhas use their Enjoyment Bodies to teach and transform

the Bodhisattvas who are on the tenth ground.
 

PART FOUR: THE EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Its nature is exclusively the non-obscuring indeterminate, and

it interacts with the Five Universally Interactive Dharmas.

Before its transformation into wisdom, the eighth

consciousness always arises together with the seventh consciousness

and the Five Universally Interactive Dharmas: attention, contact,

feeling, conceptualization, and deliberation. The nature of the

eighth consciousness is said to be "non-obscuring" because it does

not obscure True Thusness. The eighth consciousness can also be

said to be "unobscured" because its own nature is not obscured by

the mind-dependent dharmas that arise with it. It is indeterminate

because, being passive, it does not make the distinctions of

wholesome and unwholesome or any other distinctions.

The eighth consciousness contains seeds, karmic potentials

created by previous karmic activities. The seeds ripen and become

actual dharmas as they are "perfumed" by the karmic activity of

the first seven consciousnesses. The image here is built on an

analogy with of sesame seeds, which take on the fragrance of the

sesame plant's flowers or of any fragrance with which they come

into contact.

The Three Realms with their Nine Grounds come into being in

accord with the power of karma.

Although the eighth consciousness does not create karma

because it is totally passive in function, the seeds stored within

it ripen to create actual dharmas that are the Three Realms and the

Nine Grounds. [The Nine Grounds are explained above in the

explanation of the second line of the verse describing the first

five consciousnesses.]

Because of their confused attachments, those of the Two Vehicles

don't comprehend it;

And based upon those attachments, there arise the disputes of

the shastra masters.

Only the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are capable of direct

awareness of the eighth consciousness, because its states are so

subtle. That is why those of the Hinayana vehicles deny its

existence. The Treatise on Consciousness-Only gives scriptural

references to it from both Mahayana and Hinayana scriptures

together with logical arguments for the necessity of its existence.

How vast and unfathomable is the threefold alaya!

Alaya means "storehouse". Because it is a "storehouse" of

seeds, storehouse consciousness (alayavijnana) is one of the names

by which the eighth consciousness is known. "Threefold" refers

to three aspects of the eighth consciousness: it contains seeds,

it is 'perfumed', and the seventh consciousness takes it to be theself.

Generated by the winds of states, seven waves arise from its

depths.

"Its depths" refers to the extent of the eighth consciousness,

which is compared to the ocean. The first seven consciousnesses

arise from the eighth consciousness in the same manner as waves

arise on the surface of the sea. The wind represents "states", the

causes and conditions for the consciousnesses arising. The causes

and conditions "perfume" seeds in the eighth consciousness, causing

them to sprout, to become actual dharmas. The first seven

consciousnesses and the Dharmas Interactive with the Mind

associated with them all come into being from seeds stored in the

eighth consciousness.

It undergoes perfuming and contains the seeds both of the body

with its organs and of the material world.

The body with its perceptual organs and the entire physical

world also arise from seeds contained in the eighth consciousness.

After going and before coming, it's in control.

At death the first seven consciousnesses are reabsorbed into

the eighth consciousness. At birth they are regenerated as

separate consciousnesses. "After going and before coming" refers

to the intermediate state between death and rebirth. Dureing that

period the eighth consciousness is "in control."

The line could also be interpreted as meaning that at death

the eighth consciousness is the last to leave the old body, and at

birth it is the first to begin functioning.

Before the Unmoving Ground attachment to the storehouse is

finally relinquished.

The Unmoving Ground is the Eighth Ground. Prior to the eighth

ground, that is, on the seventh ground, the seventh consciousness

relinquishes its innate attachment to the eighth or storehouse

consciousness being the self. This takes place as the seventh

consciousness transforms itself into the Wisdom Whose Nature is

Equality.

Upon completion of the vajra Path, it is empty of the ripening of

results.

The vajra Path, "the Path of indestructible substance", refers

to the eighth through tenth grounds and, in addition, the stage ofEqual Enlightenment. Due to the absence of self and because the

Bodhisattva contemplates the emptiness of both self and dharmas

during this period, no fresh defiling karma is created, but "the

ripening of results" continues: seeds planted in the past continue

to ripen into actual karmic retribution. However, at Buddhahood the

eighth consciousness is finally emptied of ripening seeds of future

karma. In other words, no seeds remain in the mind that could give

rise to future outflows or impurities.

The Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom and the undefiled

consciousness are produced at the same time,

At Buddhahood the transformation of the eighth consciousness

into the Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom is complete, and consciousness

can be said to be totally undefiled. It is this pure

"consciousness" that is called True Thusness.

And in the ten directions universally illuminate Buddha-fields as

countless as motes of dust.

The light of wisdom emitted from the Dharma Body of the Buddha

illumintes everywhere.

The ten directions are north, south, east, west, northeast,

northwest, southeast, southwest, above, and below.

A Buddha-field or Buddhaland refers to where a Buddha resides,

a "land" created by the power of great compassion to aid in

teaching living beings and in taking them across to Buddhahood.
 

IV. APPENDICES

A. DHARMAS INTERACTIVE WITH THE MIND AND THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

=================================================================

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

UNIVERSALLY INTERACTIVE

attention X X X X

contact X X X X

feeling X X X X

conceptualization X X X X

deliberation X X X X

PARTICULAR STATES

desire X X

resolution X X

recollection X X

judgment X X X

WHOLESOME STATES

faith X X

vigor X X

shame X X

remorse X X

absence of greed X X

absence of hatred X X

absence of foolishness X X

light ease X X

non-laxness X X

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

renunciation X X

non-harming X X

SIX FUNDAMENTAL AFFLICTIONS

greed X X

anger X X

foolishness X X

arrogance X

doubt X

IMPROPER VIEWS

self-delusion X X

view of self X X

self-conceit X X

self-love X X

extreme views X

false views X

TWENTY DERIVATIVE AFFLICTIONS

TEN MINOR GRADE

wrath X

hatred X

rage X

covering X

deceit X

flattery X

conceit X

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

harming X

jealousy X

stinginess X

TWO INTERMEDIATE GRADE

lack of shame X X

lack of remorse X X

EIGHT MAJOR GRADE

lack of faith X X X

laziness X X X

laxness X X X

torpor X X X

restlessness X X X

distraction X X X

improper knowledge X X X

scatteredness X X X

FOUR UNFIXED

sleep X

regret X

examination X

investigation X

=================================================================

B. GLOSSARY OF SPECIAL TERMS

basis asraya

Buddha-field buddha-kshetra

characteristics of dharmas dharma-laksana

consciousness. vijnana

continuous functioning Ch. chang

delineating Ch. gwei jyu

dhyana Ch. chan

ground bhumi

interactive with the mind caitta, caitasika

latent tendencies anusaya

meditative inquiry Ch. tsan chan

mental inquiry Ch. shen sz

mind-organ manas

no outflows anasrava

organ of pure form Ch. jing sz gen

perceived division nimitta-bhaga

perceiver division darshana-bhaga

ripening of results vipaka

seeds bija

state Ch. jye, jing jye

storehouse alaya

storehouse consciousness alayavijnana

three baskets tripitaka

transformation body Skt. nisyanda-kaya

True Thusness bhutatathata, Ch. jen ru

undefiled amala

vajra Path vajra-marga

C. CONSCIOUSNESS-ONLY SCHOOL LISTS
 

TWO KINDS OF WISDOM (Ch. er jung jr)

1) Fundamental wisdom (Skt. mula-jnana, Ch. gen ben jr)

2) Later attained wisdom (Skt. prstalabdha-jnana, Ch. hou de

jr)

TWO OBSTACLES (er jang)

1) Obstacle of the afflictions (Skt. klesavarana)

2) Obstacle of the knowable (Skt. jneyavarana)

THREE ASPECTS OF THE ALAYAVIJNANA (san jung e lai ye shr)

1) Container of seeds (Skt. sarvabijaka, Ch. neng dzang)

2) Undergoes "perfuming" (Ch. swo dzang)

3) Taken to be self by seventh consciousness (Ch. wo ai jr

dzang)

THREE ASPECTS OF THE DHARMA BODY (Ch. san jung fa shen)

1) Self-mastery (Skt. svabhavika-kaya, Ch. dz sying shen)

2) Enjoyment (Skt. sambhoga-kaya, Ch. shou yung shen)

3) Transformation (Skt. nirmana-kaya, Ch. byan hwa shen)

THREE DIVISIONS OF THE BUDDHIST CANON (Skt. tripitaka, Ch. san

dzang)

1) Sutra (Ch. jing)

2) Vinaya (Ch. lyu)

3) Abhidharma (Ch. lwun)

THREE DIVISIONS OF THE EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS (Ch. ba shr san fen)

1) Self-verifying division (Skt.

svasamvittibhaga, Ch. dz jeng fen)

2) Perceiver division (Skt. darsanabhaga, Ch. jyan fen)

3) Perceived division (Skt. nimittabhaga, Ch. syang fen)

THREE KINDS OF FEELING (Skt. vedana, Ch. san shou)

1) pleasurable (Skt. sukha, Ch. le)

2) painful (Skt. duhkha, Ch. ku)

3) neutral (Skt. aduhkhasukha, Ch. bu ku bu le)

THREE KINDS OF TRANSFORMATION BODIES

1) great transformation

2) small transformation

3) bodies that accord with the species of living beings

THREE MODES OF KNOWLEDGE (Skt. pramana, Ch. san lyang)

1) direct, veridical perception (Skt. pratyaksa, Ch. syan

lyang)

2) inference (Skt. anumana, Ch. bi lyang)

3) fallacy (Skt.abhasa, Ch. fei lyang)

THREE NATURES (Ch. san sying)

1) wholesome (Skt. kusala, Ch. shan)

2) unwholesome (Skt. akusala, Ch. e)

3) indeterminate (Skt. avyakrta, Ch. wu ji)

THREE STATES (Skt. avastha, Ch. san jing)

1) natural state (Ch. sying jing)

2) state of solitary impressions (Ch. du ying jing)

3) state of transposed substance (Ch. dai jr ching)

THREE STEPS IN THE CREATION OF KARMA (Ch. san sz)

1) mental inquiry (Ch. shen lu)

2) decision (Ch.jywe ding)

3) action (Ch. fa dung)

THREE REALMS (Ch. san jye)

1) realm of desire (Skt. kamadhatu, Ch. yu jye)

2) realm of form (Skt. rupadhatu, Ch. sz/shai jye)

3) formless realm (Skt. arupyadhatu, Ch. wu sz/shai jye)

FOUR KINDS OF NOURISHMENT (Skt. catvara-ahara,Ch. sz shr)

1) mouthfuls (Skt. kavali-kara-ahara, Ch. dwan shr)

2) mental contact (Skt. sparsa-ahara, Ch. chu shr)

3) volition (Skt. manah-sancetana-ahara, Ch. sz shr)

4) consciousness (Skt. vijnana-ahara, Ch. shr shr)

FOUR KINDS OF WISDOM (Skt. jnana, Ch. sz jr)

1) Great Mirror Wisdom (Skt. adarsa-jnana, Ch. da ywan jing

jr)

2) Wisdom of Equality (Skt. samata-jnana, Ch. ping deng sying jr)

3) Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation (Skt.pratyaveksana-jnana, Ch. myau gwan cha jr)

4) Wisdom of Successful Performance (Skt. krityanusthana-

jnana, Ch. cheng swo dzwo jr)

FOUR TYPES OF DELUSION (Ch. sz hwo/hwei)

1) self-love (Skt. atma-sneha, Ch. wo ai, wo tan)

2) self-delusion (Skt. atma-moha, Ch. wo chr)

3) view of self (Skt. atma-drsti, Ch. wo jyan)

4) self-conceit (Skt. atma-mana, Ch. wo man)

SIX DESTINIES (Skt. gati, Ch. lyou chyu)

1) gods (Skt. deva, Ch. tyan)

2) humans (Skt. manusya, Ch. ren)

3) asuras (Skt. asura, Ch. e syou lwo)

4) animals (Skt. tiryagyoni, Ch. chu sheng)

5) ghosts (Skt. preta, Ch. e gwei)

6) hell-dwellers (Skt. nairayika, Ch. di yu)

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH See SIX DESTINIES

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES (Skt. vijnana, Ch. ba shr)

1) eye-consciousness (Skt. caksur-vijnana, Ch. yan shr)

2) ear-consciousness (Skt. srotra-vijnana, Ch. er shr)

3) nose-consciousness (Skt. ghrana-vijnana, Ch. bi shr)

4) tongue-consciousness (Skt. jihva-vijnana, Ch. she shr)

5) body-consciousness (Skt. kaya-vijnana, Ch. shen shr)

6) mind-consciousness (Skt. mano-vijnana, Ch. yi shr)

7) defiled/defiling mind-consciousness (Skt. klista-mano-

vijnana, manas, Ch. yi)

NINE GROUNDS (Skt. navanupurvavihara, Ch. jyou di)

1) Realm of desire (Skt. kama-dhatu, Ch. yu jye)

2) First Dhyana (Skt. prathama-dhyana, Ch. chu chan)

3) Second Dhyana (Skt. dvitiya-dhyana, Ch. er chan)

4) Third Dhyana (Skt. trtiya-dhyana, Ch. san chan)

5) Fourth Dhyana (Skt. caturtha-dhyana, Ch. sz chan)

6) Infinite Space (Skt. akasanantyayatana, Ch. kung wu byan

chu)

7) Infinite Consciousness (Skt. vijnananantyayatana, Ch. shr

wu byan chu)

8) Nothing Whatsoever (Skt. akincanantyayatana, Ch. wu swo

you chu)

9) Neither Cognition Nor Non-Cognition (Skt.

naivasamjnasamjnayatana, Ch. fei syang fei fei syang chu)

NINE PRECONDITIONS (Ch. jyou ywan)

1) Space (Ch. kung)

2) Light (Ch. ming)

3) Organ (Ch. gen)

4) State (Ch. jing)

5) Attention (Ch. dzwo yi)

6) Basis of Discrimination (Ch. fen bye yi)

7) Basis of Defilement and Purity (Ch. ran jing yi)

8) Fundamental Basis (Ch. gen ben yi)

9) Seeds as Basis (Ch. jung dz yi)

TEN GROUNDS (Skt. dasa-bhumi, Ch. shr di)

1) Ground of Happiness (Skt. pramudita-bhumi, Ch. hwan syi di)

2) Ground of Leaving Filth (Skt. vimala-bhumi, Ch. li gou di)

3) Ground of Emitting Light (Skt. prabhakari-bhumi, Ch. fa

wang di)

4) Ground of Blazing Wisdom (Skt. arcismati-bhumi, Ch. yan

hwei di)

5) Ground of Invincibility (Skt. sudurjaya-bhumi, Ch. nan

sheng di)

6) Ground of Manifestation (Skt. abhimukhi-bhumi, Ch. syan

chyan di)

7) Ground of Travelling Far (Skt. duramgama-bhumi, Ch. ywan

sying di)

8) Ground of Not Moving (Skt. acala-bhumi, Ch. bu dung di)

9) Ground of Good Wisdom (Skt. sadhumati-bhumi, Ch. shan hwei di)

10) Ground of the Dharma Cloud (Skt. dharmamegha-bhumi, Ch.

fa yun di)

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS See Shastra on the Door to Understanding

the Hundred Dharmas.

D. WORKS CITED

Han-Shan (Ta Shr). Sying-syang Tung-shwo. Ming Dynasty; rpt.Taipei: Fo-jyau Chu-ban She, 1976.

Hui-li. Life of Hsuan Tsang.

Maitreya (Bodhisattva). Yogacarabhumi-Sastra (Treatise on the

Stages of Yoga Practice). Ch. yu chye shr di lun. T. 1579.

Sywan-Dzang (Tripitaka Master). Cheng Wei-Shih Lun (Treatise on

Consciousness-Only). T. 1509. (Reconstructed into Sanskrit as

vijnaptimatratasiddhi.)

Vasubandhu (Bodhisattva). Shastra on the Door to Understanding

the Hundred Dharmas with Commentary by Tripitaka Master Hua.

Talmage: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 1983.

Vasubandhu (Bodhisattva). Trimsaka (Thirty Verses on

Consciousness-Only). Ch. Wei-shr san-shr lun