BASIC TEACHINGS OF THE CONSCIOUSNESS-ONLY SCHOOL OF BUDDHISM

Compiled by Ronald Epstein

Contents

1. Introduction (from Buddhism A to Z)

2. Biography of the Venerable Asanga (from Buddhism A to Z)

3. Biography of the Venerable Vasubandhu (from Buddhism A to Z)

4. Biography of Tripitaka Master Sywan-Dzang (from Buddhism A to

Z)

5. "The Transformation of Consciousness into Wisdom in the Chinese

Consciousness Only School according to the Cheng Wei-Shr Lun" by

Ronald Epstein (reprinted from Vajra Bodhi Sea, Jan. Feb. Mar.

1985)

6. "Verses Delineating the Eight Consciousnesses" by Tripitaka

Master Sywan Dzang, translated with explanation by Ronald Epstein


I. INTRODUCTION

Consciousness-Only School

The starting point of the Consciousness-Only School is that

everything is created from the mind as is "consciousness-only".

Everything, from birth and death to the cause of attaining nirvana,

is based upon the coming into being and the ceasing to be of

consciousness, that is, of distinctions in the mind.

Consciousness-Only doctrine is characterized by its extensive and

sophisticated inquiry into the characteristics of dharmas. For if

we can distinguish what is real from what is unreal, if we can

distinguish what is distinction-making consciousness and not

mistake it for the originally clear, pure, bright enlightened mind,

then we can quickly leave the former and dwell in the latter.

Ch'an Master Han-shan (AD 1546-1623) has said, "When

Consciousness-Only was made known to them (i.e., those of the

Hinayana vehicles), they knew that [all dharmas] had no existence

independent from their own minds. If one does not see the mind

with the mind, then no characteristic can be got at. Therefore,

in developing the spiritual skill necessary for meditative inquiry,

people are taught to look into what is apart from heart, mind, and

consciousness and to seek for what is apart from the states of

unreal (polluted) thinking."

The founder of the Consciousness-Only School was the

Bodhisattva Maitreya, who transmitted its teaching to the Venerable

Asanga. He and his brother Vasubandhu were responsible for its

early spread in India. The school was influential in Jung-Gwo

(i.e., China) primarily because of the efforts of Tripitaka Master

Sywan-Dzang.

II. Asanga (Bodhisattva)

Together with his teacher the Bodhisattva Maitreya, Asanga

was the founder of the Yogacara, or Consciousness-Only, School of

Mahayana Buddhism.

The oldest of three sons, all called Vasubandhu, born in

Purusapura (Peshwar) who were members of the Kausika family of

Indian brahmins. All three became Buddhist Bhikshus. Asanga's

youngest brother was known as Virincivatsa, while the middle

brother was known merely as Vasubandhu (see below).

Asanga was a man who was endowed with the innate

character of a Bodhisattva. He became a Bhikshu of the

Sarvastivada School, but afterwards he practiced

meditation and became free from desire. Though he

investigated the doctrine of emptiness, he could not

understand it. He was about to commit suicide. Pindola,

an Arhat, who was then in Eastern Purvavideha, having

perceived this, came to him from that region and

expounded the doctrine of emptiness peculiar to the

Hinayana. He arranged his thoughts according to what he

was taught and at once comprehended it. Though he had

attained the doctrine of emptiness peculiar to the

Hinayana, he, nevertheless, did not find comfort in it.

Thinking that it would not be right to drop the matter

altogether, he went up to the Tusita Heaven using the

supernatural power peculiar to the Hinayana and inquired

of Maitreya, the Bodhisattva, who expounded for him the

doctrine of emptiness belonging to the Mahayana. When

he returned to Jambudvipa, he investigated according to

the methods explained to him and soon became enlightened.

While he was engaged in investigation, the earth began

to quake (of its own accord) in six ways. Since he

understood the doctrine of emptiness, he called himself

"Asanga", which means "without attachment". He afterwards

often went up to the Tusita Heaven in order to ask

Maitreya about the doctrines of the Mahayana sutras. The

Bodhisattva explained them extensively for him. Whenever

he acquired any new understanding, he would come back to

Jambudvipa and teach it to others. Most of those hearing

him did not believe him. Asanga, Teacher of the Dharma,

then prayed, saying, "I now intend to bring all beings

to believe fully in the doctrine of the Mahayana. I only

pray that you, O Great Master, come down to Jambudvipa

to expound the Mahayana so that all beings may become

fully convinced of its truth." Maitreya, thereupon, in

accordance with his prayer, came down to Jambudvipa at

night, flooding it with great rays of light, had a large

assembly of those connected with the Dharma called in a

lecture hall, and began to recite the Saptadasabhumi-

sutra. After having recited a passage, he would explainits purport. The seventeen bhumis were finished during

the nights of four months. Although all were together

in one and the same hall listening to the discourse, it

was, nevertheless, only Asanga, Teacher of the Dharma,,

who had access to the Bodhisattva Maitreya, while the

others could merely hear him from afar. At night, all

together heard the religious discourse by Maitreya, while

in the daytime Asanga, Teacher of the Dharma, commented

once again, for the sake of others, upon what had been

taught by the Bodhisattva. In this way all the people

could hear and believe in the doctrine of the Mahayana.

Maitreya, the Bodhisattva, taught Asanga, Teacher of the

Dharma, to learn the "sunlight" samadhi. As he learned

according to what he had been taught, he subsequently

attained entry into that samadhi. After he attained

entry into that samadhi, what he formerly could not

understand all became intelligible. Whatever he heard

or saw was never forgotten, his memory having become

retentive, whereas he formerly could not fully understand

the sutras of the Mahayana, such as the Avatamsaka,

previously taught by the Buddha. Maitreya explained for

him all these in the Tusita heaven; thus the Teacher of

the Dharma became well-versed in them and remembered them

all. Afterwards in Jambudvipa he composed several

upadesa on the sutras of the Mahayana, in which he

expounded all the teachings of the Mahayana taught by the

Buddha. (Paramartha, "The Life of Vasubandhu", J.

Takakusu, tr. [with some editing], pp. 273-275)

III. Vasubandhu (Bodhisattva) (fl. 4th cent. AD)

The second of three sons, born in Purusapura (Peshwar), India,

into the Kausika family of Indian Brahmins. All three sons were

called Vasubandhu and all three became Buddhist Bhikshus. His

older brother was known as Asanga and his younger brother as

Virincivatsa. He is known simply as Vasubandhu. In his youth he

adhered to the Hinayana teachings of the Sautrantika School and

wrote the Abhidharmakosa, perhaps the most well-known of all

treatises on the Abhidharma. He was converted to the Mahayana by

his older brother the Bodhisattva Asanga. After his conversion,

he wrote many celebrated works on the Consciousness-Only School of

the Mahayana, including the Twenty Verses on Consciousness-Only and

the Thirty Verses on Consciousness-Only.

VASUBANDHU'S CONVERSION

"Asanga, teacher of the Law [Dharma], saw that his younger

brother was endowed with an intelligence surpassing that of others,

his knowledge being deep and wide, and himself well-versed in

esoteric and exoteric doctrines. He was afraid that the latter

might compose a sastra and crush the Mahayana. He was living thenin the land of the Hero (Purusa-pura) and sent a messenger to

Vasubandhu in Ayodhya with the following message: "I am seriously

ill at present. You had better attend to me quickly." Vasubandhu

followed the messenger to his native land, saw his brother and

inquired what was the cause of his illness. He answered: "I have

now a serious disease of the heart, which arose on account of you."

Vasubandhu again asked: "Why do you say on account of me?" He

answered: "You dot no believe in the Mahayana and are always

attacking and discrediting it. For this wickedness you will be

sure to sink forever in a miserable Life. I am now grieved and

troubled for your sake to such an extent that my life will no long

survive. On hearing this Vasubandhu was surprised and alarmed and

asked his brother to expound the Mahayana for him. He then gave

him a concise explanation of the essential principles of the

Mahayana. Thereupon the Teacher of the Law (Vasubandhu), who was

possessed of clear intelligence and especially of deep insight,

became at once convinced that the truth of the Mahayana excelled

even that of the Hinayana.

"He then fully investigated, under his brother, the principles

of the Mahayana. Soon after he became as thoroughly acquainted with

the whole as his brother was. When its meaning was already clear

to him, he would meditate on it. From the beginning to the end

everything was perfectly in accordance with the truth, there being

nothing contradictory to it. For the first time he realized that

the Hinayana was wrong and the Mahayana right. If there were no

Mahayana, then (he thought) there would be no path (marga) and no

fruition (phala) of the Tri-yana [Three Vehicles]. Since he

formerly did harm by speaking ill of the Mahayana, in which he then

had no faith, he was now afraid that he might fall into a miserable

life on account of that wickedness. He deeply reproached himself

and earnestly repented of his previous fault. He approached his

brother and confessed his error, saying: 'I now desire to make a

confession. I do not know by what means I can be pardoned for my

former slander.' He said (further): 'I formerly did harm speaking

ill (of the truth) by means of my tongue. I will now cut out my

tongue in order to atone for my crime.' His brother answered:

'Even if you cut out your tongue a thousand times, you cannot wipe

out your crime. If you really want to wipe out your crime, you

must find some other means.' Thereupon he asked his brother to

explain the means of wiping out the offence. The latter said:

'Your tongue was able to speak very skillfully and effectively

against the Mahayana, and thus discredit it. If you want to wipe

out your offence, you must now propound the Mahayana equally

skillfully and effectively.'" (The Life of Vasubandhu, J. Takakusu,

tr., pp. 290-292)

A eulogy says:

It is difficult to practice two teachings at once.

He brought forth the secret meanings of the Compassion-

ate Sage.

In awesome Shastras like piled up clouds,

Explaining the untransmitted doctrine,

Revealing the Consciousness-Only,

complete in both the Nature and Appearance Schools.

An eternal Dharma lamp,

He lights a million generations.

(VBS #20, p. 2)

IV. Sywan-Dzang (Tripitaka Master) (596-664)

Great enlightened master, translator, and founder of the

Consciousness-Only School in China.

"This Bhikshu's contributions to Buddhism have been

exceptionally great. It can be said that from ancient times to

the present, there has never been anyone who can compare to this

Dharma Master in his achievements. His worldly name was Ch'a. His

father was an official, but a poor one. Why did he end up a poor

official? It was because he didn't take bribes. He wasn't after

the citizens' money nor that of the government. He wasn't like

people today who hold office and always feel they are earning too

little money so that on top of their government salary they force

the citizens to give them their hard-earned money as well. Dharma

Master Sywan-Dzang's father didn't want money. He remained a poor

official all his life. Even though he was poor, he had a virtuous

nature and because of that he had two sons who left the home-life,

lectured Sutras, and were adept cultivators of the Way.

"Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang left the home-life at the age of

thirteen and commenced his study of the Buddhadharma. During those

early years of study, if there was a Dharma Master lecturing a

Buddhist text, no matter who the Dharma Master was or how far away

the lecture was being held, he was sure to go to listen, whether

it was a Sutra lecture, a Shastra lecture or a Vinaya lecture. He

went to listen to them all. Wind and rain couldn't keep him away

from lectures on the Tripitaka, to the point that he even forgot

to be hungry. He just ate the Dharma, taking the Buddhadharma as

his food and drink. He did this for five years and then took the

Complete Precepts.

"However, the principles lectured by the Dharma Masters he

heard were all different. They all explained the same Sutras in

very different ways--each with his own interpretation. And there

was a big difference between the lectures of those with wisdom and

those without wisdom. But Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang had not yet

really become enlightened, and he didn't have the Selective Dharma

Eye, and so how could he know whose lectures to rely on? At that

time he vowed to go to India, saying,

The Buddhadharma has been transmitted from India, and so

there is certainly true and genuine Buddhadharma to be

found in India.

Thereupon, he wrote a request for permission to go to India to seekthe Dharma and presented it to the emperor. Emperor Tai Dzung of

the Tang Dynasty did not grant his wish, but Dharma Master Sywan-

Dzang, who had already vowed to go, said, 'I would prefer to

disobey the son of Heaven and have my head cut off than not to go

and seek the Dharma.' And so he returned to the monastery and

began to practice mountain-climbing. He piled chairs, tables, and

benches together to simulate a mountain and practiced jumping from

one piece of furniture to the next. This was his method of

practicing mountain-climbing. From morning till night he leaped

from table to chair. Probably there weren't any big mountains --

where he lived, and so he had to practice in the temple. All the

young, old, and older novices wondered what he was up to, jumping

on furniture all day long instead of reciting Sutras or

cultivating. He didn't tell anyone that he was training to climb

the Himalayas, and so most people thought he was goofing off.

Eventually he trained his body so that it was very strong, and then

when he was physically able, he started his trip through Siberia.

"On the day of his departure, when Emperor Tai-Dzung learned

he intended to go even without imperial consent, the emperor asked

him, 'I haven't given you permission and you still insist on going.

When will you be back?'

"Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang replied, 'Look at this pine tree.

The needles are pointing toward the west. Wait until those needles

turn around and face east. That is the time when I will return.'

He didn't say how many years that would be. And so he set out.

At that time there were no airplanes, steamboats, buses, or trains.

There were boats, but they were made of wood and not too sturdy.

Besides, since he didn't have imperial permission, he probably

could not have gotten the use of a boat anyway. And so he

travelled by land through many countries, from the Siberian area

of the Russian border to India. He was gone for more than a

decade. When he reached India, he didn't know the language at all.

But bit-by-bit he studied Sanskrit and listened to many Dharma

Masters lecture the Buddhadharma. Some people say this took him

fourteen years. Others say it took nineteen. In general he went

through a great deal of suffering and difficulty to study the

Buddhadharma and then when he'd completed his studies, he returned

to China.

"When his return was imminent, the needles on the pine tree

turned to the east. As soon as the emperor saw that the pine

needles were indeed pointing east, he knew that Dharma Master

Sywan-Dzang was coming back and he sent out a party of officials

to the western gate to welcome him and escort him back. When they

reached the gate, there indeed, was Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang

returning.

"Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang then concentrated on translating

the Sutras and other works that he had brought back with him. He

translated from Sanskrit into Chinese. At the time when he was

translating the Mahaprajnaparamita-sutra, within one single year,

the peach trees blossomed six times. That was a sign of the

auspiciousness of the Mahaprajnaparamita-sutra and its importance

to all of us. The fact that it was being translated moved eventhe wood and plants to display their delight.

"Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang translated a great many sutras.

While in India, he bowed to the Buddha's sarira and bones. He saw

where the Buddha in a previous life had given up his eyes, and went

to the place where the Buddha in a previous life had practiced the

conduct of patience, and went to the place where the Buddha in a

previous life had given up his life for the sake of a tiger. He

also went to see the Bodhi tree under which the Buddha realized the

Way. He went to all of those places celebrated in Buddhism. These

pilgrimages are another indication of the extent of his true

sincerity. While in India, whenever he met Dharma Masters, he

never looked down on them, no matter how little they may have

cultivated. He was extremely respectful. He wasn't the least bit

arrogant or haughty. When he finished his studies, many Small

vehicle Dharma Masters and masters of externalist ways came to

debate with him, but none was able to defeat him.

Dharma Master Sywan-Dzang is known as a Tripitaka Master

(Tripitaka='Three Treasuries', 'Three Baskets'). The Tripitaka

includes the Sutra Treasury, the Shastra Treasury, and the Vinaya

Treasury. He was honored with this title because he understood

all three Treasuries without obstruction. . . .

"As to his name, Sywan means 'esoteric and wonderful.' He

was esoteric in the sense that none could really understand him.

Dzang means 'awe-inspiring.' He was awe-inspiring in that he could

do what others could not do. He was an outstanding person among his

peers. . . ." (HD 15-17)

The Master's name has also been transliterated as follows:

Hsuan-tsang, Yuan Chwang, etc.

V.THE TRANSFORMATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS INTO WISDOM

IN THE CHINESE CONSCIOUSNESS-ONLY SCHOOL

ACCORDING TO THE CHENG WEI-SHR LUN

by Ronald Epstein

In the Chinese Consciousness-Only School of Buddhism,

Buddhahood, characterized by the perfectly enlightened mind of True

Suchness (bhutatathata) is understood as the final realization of

a systematic and gradual path. Buddhahood is not a goal which is

attained through the acquisition of a special conceptual

understanding. Rather it is the end product of a fundamental

internal transformation of all mental activity. In the language

of Consciousness-Only, that process is referred to as the

transformation of "consciousness" that has attachment to

distinctions as its basic nature, into "wisdom" that is by its very

nature totally free from attachment. "Wisdom", therefore, indicates

a radically, qualitatively and totally different type of mental

functioning. The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to

delineate briefly the stages of transformation, and 2) after

transformation is complete and Buddhahood has been realized, to

indicate how the immanent aspect of Buddhahood utilizes wisdom tofunction in the world. Below we shall try to give a sketch of the

prescriptions given by the School to rid oneself of the basic

obstacles on the pathway to Buddhahood and to indicate briefly the

manner in which one functions in the world after those obstacles

have been removed.

THE SYSTEM OF THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

The Consciousness-Only School describes the mind as a system

of seven active consciousnesses (vijnana) which all develop out of

the eighth, or storehouse, consciousness. The latter is passive

and contains the potentials, or "seed~" (bija) for the development

and activity of the first seven consciousnesses. The seventh

consciousness contains the sense of self or of ego individuality

with which it defiles the first six consciousnesses. The sixth

consciousness is a perceptual and cognitive processing center,

while the first five consciousnesses are the perceptual awarenesses

of eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body.

Although with the emanation of these consciousnesses out of

the eighth formal division is made among them, the distinction is

totally based upon mental distinction. The eight are still

basically "one." To use a simple analogy, let us think of a room

with seven light-bulbs. You flick the light switch and seven

distinct lights shine. Turn the switch off and the lights

disappear. Yet there is just one electric current, and its source

is comparable to the storehouse consciousness, or, as it is

understood in the transformation of consciousness, to the

enlightened mind.

The system of eight consciousnesses, and the mental dharmas

(caittas) which arise out of them and are dependent upon them, was

developed as an important part of a pragmatic psychology of mind.

The system can be used to describe in a manner which is accurate

and practical both mental functioning and the specific techniques

employed on the Path to the enlightenment of Buddhahood. It

provides a way to account for mental processes without recourse

to the notions of a real, permanent self (atman) or of real,

permanent external (and internal) objects (dharma). All actual

and potential realms of experience are shown to be contained

within the transformations of consciousness and appear as

manifestations of the distinction-making mind.

Nevertheless, because of our attachment to and belief in the

reality of self and the reality of the "objects" (dharmas) which

we perceive and understand to be the external world, the true

nature of ourselves and the world is obscured so that we are

unaware of it.

THE TYPES OF ATTACHMENT

The basic obstacles which arise from the distinction-making

character of consciousness are the division of the world into 1)

subject, or one who grasps onto distinctions (the grasper), and

2) object, those distinctions which are grasped (the grasped). This distinction occurs on various levels and is reflected in each

of the eight consciousnesses. The grasper corresponds to attachment

to self and the grasped to attachment to dharmas. The former is

often referred to as the obstacle of the afflictions and the latter

as the obstacle of the knowable. These obstacles or attachments

are of two types: 1) innate, and 2) distinguished or learned.

The innate attachments are quite subtle and have existed from

beginningless time as part of the human (or more generally, the

sentient) condition. The distinguished attachments, on the other

hand, are coarser and arise from the distinction-making of our

cognitive and perceptual processes. These attachments, the

innate and distinguished attachments to self and the innate and

distinguished attachments to dharmas, are the only obstacles to

the realization of Buddhahood.

A) THE ATTACHMENT TO SELF

The innate attachment to self is twofold. By taking the

eighth consciousness, more specifically its "perceived portion,"

as its object, the seventh consciousness generates a continuous

image of the eighth or storehouse consciousness as a real

permanent self. Secondly, by taking the manifestation of the five

aggregates (form, feeling, cognition, formation, and consciousness)

as object, the sixth consciousness generates various

non-continuous concepts of self. The distinguished attachment

to self belongs solely to the realm of the sixth consciousness and

is much coarser in nature than the innate attachment of the seventh

consciousness. The sixth consciousness either takes various

aspects of the aggregates as object and conceives them to be the

real self or independently generates self-concepts and takes them

to be the real self. Such wrong conceptualization is often the

result of misinformed religious or philosophical teaching.

B) THE ATTACHMENT TO DHARMAS

The innate attachment to dharmas is also twofold. As the

seventh consciousness takes the eighth consciousness as its object,

it can also use it, more specifically its "perceived portion," to

generate a continuous mental image of the eighth consciousness as

dharmas. Likewise, the sixth consciousness can take aspects of

the aggregates and the perceptual faculties and their objects to

be real dharmas; however, in contrast to the seventh consciousness,

the functioning of the sixth consciousness in this manner is

discontinuous.

The distinguished attachment to dharmas is exclusively an

aspect of functioning of the sixth consciousness and is relatively

coarse in its nature. The sixth consciousness can either take

concepts of the Hinayana Buddhist dharmas to be real or take the

various objective categories or elements of non-Buddhist schools

to be real. In other words, it mistakes its own concepts of an

external reality for a real external reality.

THE FIVE-STAGE PATH OF THE BODHISATTVA

Now that we have briefly outlined the nature of the obstacles

to the realization of Buddhahood, we are in a position to discuss

the Consciousness-Only School's prescriptions for their

elimination. This is the gradual five-stage process known as the

Path of the Bodhisattva. It begins with the birth of the intention

to become fully enlightened (bodhicittotpada), which marks the

entrance into the first stage, that of gathering provisions or

Resources. It is followed by the stages of Application, Vision,

Meditational Development, and culminates in the final stage which

is Perfection, the perfect enlightenment of Buddhahood, the full

realization of True Suchness.

l. THE STAGE OF RESOURCES

In the stage of developing his Resources, the Bodhisattva

develops his deep faith in and understanding of the teachings of

Consciousness-Only. During this period the Bodhisattva is merely

able to subdue the rise in consciousness of the coarse, learned

aspects of the grasper and the grasped, that is, of attachment to

self and dharmas. In other words, he learns to see through and

replace with dharmic analysis the learned conceptual analysis of

perceiving and thinking about the world in terms of a real self and

real objects. He does this by learning to prevent such concepts

from arising and then snowballing in- to verbal and physical

activities (the creation of karma) . Thus he is able to utilize

effectively the Consciousness-Only School's doctrinal framework in

his everyday thinking and functioning in the world.

11. THE STAGE OF APPLICATION

In the following stage, that of Application, concentration and

insight are developed through preliminary meditational practices

called the Four Aids to Penetration: Heat, Summit, Patience, and

Highest Worldly Dharma. The Heat, Summit, and first two portions

of the Patience Aid are practiced in meditations in which one

enters into the first three dhyanas. The remainder of Patience and

Highest Worldly Dharma Aids can only be practiced by entering into

the fourth dhyana. During this gradual process not only is

manifestation of the coarse, learned aspect of grasper and grasped

subdued so that it no longer arises in consciousness, but the

seeds of its manifestation, which are stored in the eighth

consciousness, are completely destroyed. Since the seeds have been

destroyed, they cannot sprout in dharmas; there- fore, this

coarse aspect of the attachment to self and dharmas can never

again appear. It is the completion of this process that allows

entrance into the third stage.

III. THE STAGE OF THE PATH OF VISION

Entrance onto the Path of Vision provides the first realexperience of True Suchness. It marks leaving the worldly flow

and entering the flow of the Holy Ones. It corresponds to

entrance onto the first of the "grounds" (bhumi) of the Path of

the Bodhisattva, the Ground of Extreme Joy. It is at this point

that the gradual transformation of consciousness into wisdom

begins. This pure wisdom is the activity or functioning of True

Suchness. The process of transformation is a gradual one and

takes place as the Bodhisattva passes through the Ten Grounds of

the Bodhisattva.

IV. THE STAGE OF THE PATH OF MEDITATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

On the Path of Meditational Development (from dwelling on the

first ground of the Bodhisattva through the final, tenth, ground)

the wisdom, which first appeared on the Path of Vision, gradually

eliminates the manifestations and the seeds of the manifestations

of the innate attachments of grasper and grasped. In passing

through the first seven grounds, the Bodhisattva eliminates all the

seeds of the subtle, innate attachment to self of both sixth and

seventh consciousnesses (obstacle of the afflictions; the grasper).

The single exception is the very subtle seeds of what is known as

the spontaneous aspect of the obstacle afflictions. The Bodhisattva

must preserve those seeds all the way up to the moment of realizing

Buddhahood because they are the primary cause of the Bodhisattva's

continued rebirth and, therefore, necessary for continued progress

on the Path of the Bodhisattva.

The subtle, innate attachment to dharmas, (the obstacle of the

knowable); the grasped) is also eliminated in gradual stages as

the Bodhisattva proceeds through the ten grounds. On the final,

tenth ground, the last, extremely subtle attachments to all known

dharmas and their seeds,together with the above-mentioned seeds of

the spontaneous aspect of the affliction obstacle necessary for

rebirth, are completely eliminated. Then there can no longer ever

be any kind of attachment, coarse or subtle. to self or dharmas,

grasper or grasped. The obstacle of the afflictions and the

obstacle of the knowable are completely eliminated.

V. THE STAGE OF PERFECTION

Having outlined briefly the Path to Buddhahood and the

stages in which the various obstacles to that enlightenment are

eliminated, we are now in a position to discuss in greater detail

the types of wisdom in terms of how they are used on the Path. As

we have already seen, the distinguished or learned aspects of

attachment to self and dharmas, grasper and grasped, are destroyed

at the moment of entrance onto the Path of Vision. Their

elimination clears the way for the appearance of a pure wisdom

that has two components. It is characterized as pure because of

its complete lack of outflows (asraya), that is, the outward

flowing of the mind and its attachment to various aspects of the

conditioned world. Previous to this, the wisdom used as a guiding

force in the meditational process was an impure, preliminary"applied" wisdom (prayogajnana) characterized by outflow. The

first of the two components of the non-outflowing wisdom is called

fundamental wisdom (mulajnana). It is characterized as

non-distinction-making (nirvikalpa). In the process of its initial

appearance, it naturally destroys the seeds of the distinguished

attachment to self and dharmas. The destruction of the seeds and

the appearance of the fundamental wisdom is a simultaneous and

instantaneous process. The second component of the non-outflowing

wisdom is based on the first and for that reason is called

subsequently attained wisdom (prsthalabdajnana). It is an expedient

wisdom which operates in the world of distinctions. It analyzes the

characteristics of dharmas, yet does not become attached to those

characteristics as is the case with the preliminary "applied"

wisdom, which has outflows. The subsequently attained wisdom

reflects on the seeming characteristics of True Suchness and in

this way is used to eliminate the seeds of learned attachment to

self and dharmas. However, the mode of its functioning is gradual.

It is employed in various meditational techniques to destroy the

many separate aspects of the learned seeds.

THE FUNCTIONING OF WISDOM

Generally, wisdom functions in two ways. It acts to subdue

the phenomenal activity of the mind (dharmas). and then, on a

more fundamental level, it eliminates the seeds (bija). which are

the source of that activity. Wisdom and distinction-making

consciousness are like ice and water. As the water freezes, the

ice appears; as the ice melts, the water appears. On the level

of the phenomenal activity of the mind, the greater the attachment

to distinctions, the weaker the functioning of wisdom; the

stronger the functioning of wisdom, the less attachment to

distinctions. For attachment to distinctions to be permanently

eliminated, wisdom must operate with sufficient basis and power

to supercede not only the manifestation of the distinctions but

also their seeds, which are their basic cause. Another image

often used to describe the process is that of light superceding

darkness. If the light can not only fill the darkness but also

fully and permanently penetrate the barriers to the light, then

the darkness is permanently eliminated.

At the beginning of the Path, the power of wisdom is weak and

the power of distinction-making consciousness is strong. In the

first two stages of the path, those of Resources and Application,

there is no manifestation of pure wisdom, wisdom characterized by

complete lack of outflows. In order to clear the mind so that the

seeds of pure wisdom can grow and finally become actualized, the

Bodhisattva temporarily employs preliminary "applied" wisdom, which

is characterized by outflows. That is, it tends to seek out the

characteristics of mental objects, and by nature depends upon them

for support. By treating True Suchness as a perceived

characteristic of the mind, this provisional wisdom utilizes its

own characterization of True Suchness as a support for meditation

on the emptiness of the grasper and the grasped. In this way, the coarse aspects of the distinguished obstacles are eliminated

and the other aspects of the distinguished and innate obstacles

are subdued, that is, they are partially or fully prevented from

rising into active awareness.

As an aid to this type of meditation, the Bodhisattva

gradually decreases the extent of phenomenal activity produced by

the seeds of the two obstacles by the use of resolution

(adhimaksa), a special mental state, and of remorse (hri) and

shame (apatrapa), both wholesome mental states. Resolution,

remorse, and shame are all technical "dharmas," which are included

in the One Hundred Dharmas of the Consciousness-Only School.

Resolution is explained as that mental state which examines

dharmas and comes to a decision about their natures. Employing

resolution helps the Bodhisattva to see the conditioned, empty

nature of all dharmas so that he will not become attached to them.

Remorse and shame are the inner and outer recognition of one's own

improper behavior and of a desire to change it.

With the successful completion of the first two stages, the

balance shifts. The turning point is the entrance onto the Path

of Vision. At that point wisdom no longer functions totally in

dependence upon distinction- making consciousness. For the first

time its non-outflow potential actually becomes operative as the

basis for further progress on the Path. As we have already noted,

the entrance onto the Path of Vision marks the initial experience

of the nature of True Suchness. It is then fully realized as the

Ten Grounds are passed through. With each step in the progressive

elimination of the obstacles to Buddha- hood, there is a

corresponding step in the development of wisdom.

On the Path of Vision, fundamental wisdom instantaneously

destroys the seeds of the distinguished attachment to grasper and

grasped, while subsequently attained wisdom is used to eliminate

gradually the various distinguished characteristics which are an

obstruction to True Suchness. During this stage the preliminary

"applied" wisdom does not operate.

On the first seven grounds of the Path of Meditational

Development all three types of wisdom operate. The preliminary,

"applied" wisdom, though characterized by outflows, functions

because outflowing attachments are still present and practice is

still intentional. That is, it involves an act of will,

signifying a tension be- tween two competing aspects of mind. The

subsequently attained wisdom is utilized in meditations with

characteristics, whereas fundamental wisdom is employed in the

meditations without characteristics .

Starting with the Eighth Ground and continuing to the

realization of Buddhahood, outflows and the innate attachment to

self are totally ended (except for that extremely subtle,

spontaneous attachment necessary for rebirth). Because there is

no longer any self, cultivation proceeds completely spontaneously.

Since there is no longer any personal effort, the preliminary

"applied" wisdom no longer functions (though its seeds are not

totally eliminated until Buddhahood) . All meditation is without

characteristics and utilizes fundamental wisdom, while all actionsproceed spontaneously from the functioning of subsequently attained

wisdom.

THE FOUR TYPES OF ENLIGHTENED WISDOM

Fundamental wisdom and subsequently attained wisdom are

classifications of wisdom, that is, the activity or functioning of

True Suchness in terms of whether or not they act to distinguish

the characteristics of dharmas. The Four Types of wisdom is another

classification of the activity of True Suchness, in this instance,

in terms of the functions which they inherit from the eighth

consciousnesses of which they are transformations.

'The first five perceptual consciousnesses are transformed

into the Wisdom of Successful Performance; the sixth consciousness,

the perceptual and cognitive processing center, is transformed into

the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation; the seventh consciousness,

which ordinarily de- files the first six consciousnesses with self

and self-related afflictions, is transformed into the Wisdom of

Equality; and the eighth, the storehouse consciousness, is trans-

formed into the Great Mirror Wisdom.

Both the Wisdom of Equality and the Wisdom of Wonderful

Contemplation first begin to function on the Path of Vision. As

attachment to the distinctions of the sixth and seventh

consciousnesses diminishes, the power of these two types of wisdom

in- creases. The functioning of the Wisdom of Equality is

occasionally interrupted up through the Seventh Ground of the

Bodhisattva when there are outflows (innate attachments) in the

sixth consciousness that evoke the outflowing functioning of the

seventh consciousness as support. This occurs because the seventh

consciousness's attachment to grasper and grasped has not yet been

fully eliminated.

The Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation has two aspects,

corresponding to understanding of the emptiness of self and of the

emptiness of dharmas. They both function as long as there is no

outflowing functioning of the sixth consciousness, which would

naturally interfere. This type of wisdom is not active during the

course of meditation without characteristics. (Meditation without

characteristics becomes predominant on the Sixth Ground and is the

exclusive type of meditation from the Seventh Ground on.)

On the first seven grounds, the progress which takes place has

to do with the transformation of the sixth and seventh

consciousnesses into their respective wisdoms. During this period,

meditations with characteristics, which employ the sixth

consciousness, are gradually phased out and replaced by meditations

without characteristics. At the entrance onto the Eighth Ground,

all outflowing activity of the seventh and sixth consciousnesses

is permanently ended and the functioning of the Wisdoms of Equality

and of Wonderful Contemplation proceeds spontaneously and without

effort.

Both the Great Mirror Wisdom and the Wisdom of Successful

Performance begin to function only at the moment of the realization

of Buddhahood. The eighth consciousness must continue to exist upto that point as a receptacle of the wholesome outflowing seeds

which allow the Bodhisattva to be reborn and to continue progress

on the Path from the Eighth Ground to entry into Buddha- hood. By

the moment of entry, the eighth consciousness has become so pure

that it can no longer serve as support for the seeds of outflowing

dharmas, no matter how fine. Although from the Eighth Ground, the

eighth consciousness continues to act as the supporting basis for

the extremely subtle spontaneous affliction that the Bodhisattva

purposely preserves as the vehicle of his continued rebirth in the

world, in every other sense the eighth consciousness is undefiled

and no longer the cause of rebirth. From the latter point of view,

the Eighth Ground marks the beginning of the laying of the ground-

work for the Great Mirror Wisdom.

The activity of the Wisdom of Successful Performance must

await the appearance of the Buddha's pure non-outflowing

perceptual faculties, because the faculties of a Bodhisattva, even

after the Eighth Ground, are based on a body which is the result

of the subtle seeds of affliction and, therefore, could not

provide the proper support. This kind of wisdom is active only

when attention is directed to the perceptual faculties. The

ground work for it is laid when the awareness of the faculty of

pure form, an aspect of the perceiver portion of the eighth

consciousness, no longer associates itself with the characteristics

of perceived objects, that is, the dharmas arising from the

perceived portion of the eighth consciousness. (This also marks

the initial emergence of subsequently attained wisdom.)

THE FOUR TYPES OF WISDOM AND BUDDHAHOOD

Having discussed when on the Path the Four Types of Wisdom

arise, we can now describe their functioning after the full

realization of True Suchness at Buddhahood. All seeds and all

dharmas, the entire universe both potential and actual, are

reflected with-out distortion in the Great Mirror Wisdom. Its

awareness of True Suchness is the functioning of the fundamental

component of this type of wisdom, while its awareness of the

activity of seeds and dharmas (as an aspect of True Suchness) is

the functioning of its subsequently attained component. The Great

Mirror Wisdom is equated with that aspect of the functioning of

the reward-body (svasambhogakaya) and pure land of the Buddha which

has no purpose beyond what it is in itself.

The Wisdom of Equality understands the nature of the equality

of self and other and of all beings. It appears as images of the

Buddhas which are limitless. It is equated with that aspect of

the reward-body (parasambhogakaya) of the Buddha that functions for

the sake of others. More specifically, it is the mode of wisdom

which the Buddha uses to teach the great Bodhisattvas. It is also

called the great transformation body (nisyandakaya). As is the

case with the Great Mirror Wisdom, both components of wisdom

function here to include both True Suchness and "worldly" aspects

in their understanding.

The Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation understands withoutdistortion the individual and universal characteristics of all

dharmas in both their True Suchness and worldly aspects. According

to Master K'uei Chi, it "examines the merits and abilities of all

beings and rains the great rain of Dharma to destroy the great net

of doubts and to benefit all sentient beings . " (59:32b)

The Wisdom of Successful Performance operates as the countless

transformation bodies of the Buddhas and as the lands both with and

without outflows in which they teach living beings. It is

exclusively concerned with those dharmas that are the dharmas of

perception, that is, the transformation bodies of the Buddha and

the phenomena which the faculties of those bodies perceive.

Therefore, only the subsequently attained component of

wisdom functions in relation to it.

In other words, the Buddha employs the Wisdom of Successful

Performance to appear in his ordinary earthly body (and other

transformation bodies) and to function perceptually within that

body. He sees, hears, smells, tastes, and touches without any

obstruction or distortion of feeling not only in the ordinary range

of perception but in an unlimited manner, universally in time and

space.

With the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation he knows clearly,

without distortion or obstruction, all dharmas which are the

objects of his perception and all other dharmas which are

exclusively the objects of cognitive processes. In this way he

knows the mental and physical condition of all beings and speaks

and acts accordingly in all the various ways necessary to teach

them most effectively.

SUMMARY

The Consciousness-Only School teaches that our true nature and

the true nature of the world is Consciousness-Only, which is

ultimately under- stood to be True Suchness. True Suchness is

covered over by the distinction-making consciousnesses' attachments

to grasper and grasped, self and dharmas. These attachments are

systematically overcome on the Bodhisattva Path by the use of

wisdom. One component of wisdom, fundamental wisdom, knows True

Suchness as the real, underlying nature of distinction- making

consciousness. As such, it eliminates confusion about principle

(deviant views, their accompanying afflictions, and the seeds of

both), radically undermining it. The other component, subsequently

attained wisdom, works on the level of the distinctions themselves

to eliminate attachment to them. Based on fundamental wisdom, it

acts to eliminate confusion about phenomena, particularly the

dharmas of greed and other primary afflictions. Upon the total

realization of True Suchness at Buddhahood, the subsequently

attained component, previously used as a tool for progress on the

Bodhisattva Path, is the modality through which the Buddha operates

in the world of distinctions made by sentient beings and through

which he teaches them the Buddhadharma, a Path for the trans-

formation of distinction-making consciousness into True Suchness

and its Four Types of Wisdom.

VI. VERSES DELINEATING THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

by Tripitaka Master Sywan-Dzang of the Tang Dynasty

Translation and Explanation by Ronald Epstein

I. INTRODUCTION

The work, written by Tripitaka Master Sywan Dzang (AD 596-664)

at the request of his foremost disciple and successor Dharma Master

Kwei Ji (AD 632-682), is a summary of the doctrine contained in

Sywan-Dzang's most celebrated work, Treatise on Consciousness-Only.

The Treatise on Consciousness-Only is a commentary on the Thirty

Verses on Consciousness Only by the Bodhisattva Vasubandhu (fl. 4th

cent AD). The Treatise is based on the Sanskrit commentary of the

Venerable Dharmapala (fl. 6th cent. AD) and nine other Indian

masters. Dharmapala was the teacher of Master Sywan Dzang's own

teacher, Silabhadra, the Abbot of Nalanda Monastery in India.

Vasubandhu's Thirty Verses on Consciousness Only is in turn

a verse summary of the major systematic work of the

Consciousness-Only, the Treatise on the Stages of Yoga Practice,

which is alternately attributed to Vasubandhu's older brother the

Bodhisattva Asanga (fl. 4th cent. AD) according to the Tibetan

tradition or to Asanga's supramundane master the Bodhisattva

Maitreya according to the Chinese tradition. At any rate according

to Sywan Dzang's biography (Hui-li, Life of Hsuan Tsang) Asanga

entered samadhi and ascended to the inner courtyard of the Tusita

Heaven to learn the doctrine of Consciousness-Only from the

Bodhisattva Maitreya.

In brief, the Verses Delineating the Eight Consciousnesses is

a verse summary of a commentary on a verse summary of the Treatise

on the Stages of Yoga Practice. Only a simple explanation of the

meaning of the lines of the Verses is presented here.

Viewpoint

The starting point of the Consciousness-Only School is that

everything is created from the mind as is "consciousness-only".

Everything, from birth and death to the cause of attaining nirvana,

is based upon the coming into being and the ceasing to be of

consciousnesss, that is, of distinctions in the mind.

Consciousness-Only doctrine is characterized by its extensive and

sophisticated inquiry into the characteristics of dharmas. For if

we can distinguish what is real from what is unreal, if we can

distinguish what is distinction-making consciousness and not

mistake it for the originally clear, pure, bright enlightened mind,

then we can quickly leave the former and dwell in the latter.

Ch'an Master Han-shan (AD 1546-1623) has said, "WhenConsciousness-Only was made known to them (i.e., those of the

Hinayana vehicles), they knew that [all dharmas] had no existence

independent from their own minds. If one does not see the mind

with the mind, then no characteristic can be got at. Therefore,

in developing the spiritual skill necessary for meditative inquiry,

people are taught to look into what is apart from heart, mind, and

consciousness and to seek for what is apart from the states of

unreal (polluted) thinking."

II. TRANSLATION

VERSES DELINEATING THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

by Tripitaka Master Sywan Dzang of the Tang Dynasty

PART ONE: THE FIRST FIVE CONSCIOUSNESSES

The direct, veridical perception of natural states can involve

any of the Three Natures.

Three consciousnesses--eyes, ears, and body--occupy two grounds.

[They interact with] the universally interctive, the particular

states, the eleven wholesome;

Two intermediate grade, eight major grade, greed, anger, and

foolishness.

The five consciousnesses are all supported by organs of pure

form.

That with nine preconditions and those with seven and eight are

close neighbors.

Three perceive the world of defilement by contact and two

perceive it at a distance.

The foolish have difficulty distinguishing consciousness from

organ.

The transformation of the perceived division in the contemplation

of emptiness is merely Later Attained Wisdom.

At the fruition, if there is still self, there is not total

truth.

At the initial emergence of perfect clarity, the stage of no outflows is realized.

Using Three Kinds of Transformation Bodies, one brings the wheel

of suffering to rest.


PART TWO: THE SIXTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Having Three Natures and with Three Modes of Knowledge, it

pervades the Three States.

As it turns on the wheel, it easily comes to know the Three

Realms it turns within.

It interacts with all fifty-one Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind.

Whenever it is wholesome or unwholesome, they make distinctions

and accompany it.

Its Three Natures, the Three States it relates with, and its

Three Kinds of Feeling are constantly in flux.

The basic and subsidiary afflictions together with faith and

other wholesome dharmas always arise jointly with the sixth

consciousness.

In physical action and in speech it is the most important.

It brings to completion by its ability to summon forth the power

of karma that leads [to rebirth].

When the state of mind that is the initial phase of the Ground of

Rejoicing arises,

Innate attachments still spontaneously appear as bonds and latent

tendencies.

After the Far-reaching Ground, it is purified and without

outflows.

When the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation becomes fully bright,

it illuminates the universe.




PART THREE: THE SEVENTH CONSCIOUSNESS

The state of transposed substance that has the obscuring

indeterminate nature is the connection between the sentience

and the basis.

According with conditions and attached to self, its mode of

knowledge is fallacy.

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions; the universally

interactive; of the particular states, judgment;

Self-love; self-delusion; view of self; and self-conceit all

interact and accord with it.

It continuously focuses its mental activity on inquiry which

results in the characteristic that is self.

Day and night it reduces sentient beings to a state of confusion.

The Four Delusions and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative

Afflictions arise interacting with it.

When the sixth consciousness is functioning, the seventh is

called the basis of defilement and purity.

During the initial phase of the Ground of Extreme Rejoicing, the

Wisdom whose Nature is Equality begins to appear.

Practice becomes effortless and the self is destroyed for good.

The Thus Come One appears [in a body] for the Enjoyment of Others

As an opportunity for Bodhisattvas of the Tenth Ground.


PART FOUR: THE EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Its nature is exclusively the non-obscuring indeterminate, and it

interacts with the five Universally Interactive Dharmas.

The Three Realms with their Nine Grounds come into being in

accord with the power of karma.

Because of their confused attachments, those of the Two Vehicles

don't comprehend it;

And based upon those attachments, there arise the disputes of the

sastra masters.

How vast and unfathomable is the threefold alaya!

Generated by the winds of states, seven waves arise from its

depths.

It undergoes perfuming and contains the seeds of the body with

its organs and of the material world.

After going and before coming, it's in control.

Before the Unmoving Ground attachment to the storehouse is

finally relinquished.

Upon completion of the vajra Path, it is emptyof the ripening of

results.

The Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom and the undefiled consciousness

are produced at the same time,

And in the ten directions universally illuminate the Buddha-

fields as countless as motes of dust.


III. TEXT AND EXPLANATION

Explanation of the Title

VERSES DELINEATING THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

"Verses". The work is written in verse so that it can be

easily remembered. However, it is not so easily understood without

an explanation or without having first studied the doctrinal

teachings extensively

The verses are divided into four sections of twelve lines

each. The first section explains the first five consciousnesses,

and the remaining three explain the sixth, seventh and eighth

consciousnesses respectively. The first eight lines of each

section explain the normal characteristics and functioning of the

consciousness, while the final four lines explain the

characteristics and functioning after the transformation of

consciousness into wisdom.

"Delineating". The Chinese, gwei jyu, literally means compass

and T-square. In other words the verses map for us the boundariesand characteristics of the eight consciousnesses.


"Eight consciousnesses." Consciousness is used exclusively

in the sense of distinction-making activities of the mind, which

include both the mking of the distinctions and the distinctions

made. Conscious awareness and what is normally unconscious are

both considered aspects of consciousness in the Buddhist sense of

the word.

The eight consciousnesses are:

1) eye-consciousness or seeing,

2) ear-consciousness or hearing,

3) nose-consciousness or smelling,

4) tongue-consciousness or tasting,

5) body-consciousness or tactile feeling,

6) mind-consciousness or cognition,

7) manas, the defiling mind-consciousness which is the

faculty of mind, and

8) alaya, or storehouse, consciousness.

They are described in detail in the discussion of the verses

themselves.

The Author

By Tripitaka Master Sywan-Dzang of the Tang Dynasty

Tripitaka is Sanskrit word meaning "three baskets". It refers

to the Buddhist canon with its three divisions--sutra, vinaya, and

abhidharma. A tripitaka master is one who has thoroughly mastered

all three divisions. Tripitaka Master Sywan-Dzang was one of the

foremost translators of Chinese Buddhist texts and a great

enlightened master in his own right. He lived during the early Tang

Dynasty, a golden age for Buddhism in China. During his early

years as a monk in China he became aware of a number of doctrinal

controversies concerning the Mahayana teachings, particularly those

of the Yogacara. He then decided to journey to India to resolve

his own doubts and to bring back authoritative texts that would

help establish the correct teachings in China. After his fourteen

(or according to some, seventeen) year journey, he established a

translation bureau under imperial patronage. He succeeded intranslating the major Yogacara texts as well as many others. His

teachings and translations served as the foundation for what was

considered the orthodox Consciousness-Only School in China.

The Text

PART ONE: THE FIRST FIVE CONSCIOUSNESSES

The direct, veridical perception of natural states can involve

any of the Three Natures

All distinction-making consciousness, has as its most basic

distinction that of subject and object. The functioning of the

subject-component of consciousness is also of three types,knownas

the Three Modes of Knowledge. Direct, veridical perception is the

first. The others are inference and fallacy. Fallacy includes

dreams and hallucinations. Only veridical perception functions

within the fields of the five consciousnesses (seeing, hearing,

smelling, tasting, and touching).

Likewise, a state refers to the object-component of

consciousness. The object component is classified as being one of

the Three Kinds of States:

1) natural state,

2) state of solitary impressions,

3) state of transposed substance.

The natural state refers to states--the perceived aspects of

consciousness--as they really are, that is, undistorted by the

attachment to self and other or by attachment to dharmas. The

natural state is unconditioned by mental causation.

The second kind, solitary impressions, has no basis in the

states as they really are, but consists of imagined categories of

the sixth consciousness such as the hair of a turtle or the horns

of a rabbit. The third, the state of transposed substance, refers

to states that are distorted by false thinking and ultimately by

the mark of a self. Only the first of the Three Kinds of States,

the natural state, occurs in relation to the five consciousnesses.

Every moment of consciousness can also be characterized as

having a moral nature. Again the analysis is threefold. The Three

Natures are the wholesome, the unwholesome, and the indeterminate.

Consciousness characterized by a wholesome nature tends towards

the creation of good karma, whereas that of an unwholesome nature

tends to create evil karma. The indeterminate nature is neutral,

neither good nor evil. Since the five consciousnesses do notcontain the potential for making moral distinctions, by themselves

they are only indeterminate in nature.

Because the five consciousnesses always arise together with

the sixth consciousness, which does distinguish good and evil, the

five consciousnesses do partake of all three natures insofar as

they are intimately connected with the sixth consciousness. As the

first five consciousnesses function, the sixth consciousness

simultaneously makes moral determinations of their contents. Apart

from the activity of the sixth consciousness, the causal

relationship of the first five consciousnesses to their

states--sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile objects--is

exclusively in terms of direct veridical perception.

Three consciousnesses--eyes, ears, and body--occupy two grounds.

The analysis now moves to what we might call the "vertical"

dimension and informs about the levels of the conditioned world on

which the five consciousnesses arise. The "two grounds" refer to

the first two of the Nine Grounds. The Nine Grounds are as follows:

a) the first ground is comprised of the realm of

desire, which includes the five destinies of hell-beings,

hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, humans and the six desire heaven

portion of the destiny of the gods;

b) the second, third, fourth, and fifth grounds are

the Four Dhyana Heavens; and

c) the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth grounds are the

Four Stations of Emptiness.


THE NINE GROUNDS

=================================================================

The Formless Realms 9. Neither Cognition

nor Non-cognition

(also known as the Four

Stations of Emptiness) 8. Nothing Whatsoever

7. Infinite Consciousness

6. Infinite Space

_________________________________________________________________

The Realm of Form 5. Fourth Dhyana (Stageof Renounc-

ing Thought)

4. Third Dhyana (Stage of the Wonder-

ful Bliss of Being Apartfrom Joy)

3. Second Dhyana (Joyful Stage of the

Arising of Samadhi)

2. First Dhyana (Joyful Stage of

Leaving Production)

_________________________________________________________________

The Realm of Desire 1. Six Desire Heavens and

the destinies of humans,

asuras, animals, hungry ghosts, and

hell-dwellers.

===============================================================

All five consciousnesses function in the realm of desire, that

is, on the first ground. On the second ground eye-, ear-, and

body-consciousness function, but nose-consciousness and

tongue-consciousness do not function, because at that level (i.e.,

at the level of the first dhyana), the smell and taste objects of

perception do not exist, nor does the type of morsel-nourishment

which is connected with smell and taste. In the first dhyana

nourishment takes place through contact rather than through the

eating of meals comprised of morsels of food (the first of the four

types).

Ordinarily we think only of nourishing our bodies through the

intake of ordinary food and drink; however, the Buddhadharma

distinguishes Four Kinds of Nourishment:

1) Mouthfuls. This kind is distinguished by the nose and

tongue. Its substance is perceived through smell, taste, and

contact. This ordinary food, bodily nutriment, changes and decays.

It can be gross, solid, or fine. This kind of nourishment takes

place only in the realm of desire.

2) Mental Contact. This kind nourishes the body by contact

with joyous situations. In other words that the first six

consciousnesses--seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching, and

cognizing--can have special value as food. Nourishment by contact

does not exist independent of the fourth kind of nourishment (see

below).

3) Volition. When associated with the sixth consciousness,

volition can function as food. It is characterized by desire for

perceptual objects, thus aiding the five perceptual organs in

attaining their objects. It occurs in all three realms, but does

not exist independent of the fourth kind of nourishment. Therefore,

the sixth consciousness in itself can have special value as food.

4) Consciousness. According to the Mahayana it refers to the

eighth consciousness. It indicates that consciousness is capable

of nourishing the bodily life of sentient beings. Life feeds offthe eighth consciousness, the basic life force or life energy.

When that life-energy is exhausted, death occurs.

One of the basic ideas here is that the nourishment needed by

a being corresponds to its level of vital and conscious life .

Coarse food is effective nourishment for a coarse organism but is

of no use for a fine one. Higher and higher levels of life and

consciousness must be fed with progressively finer and finer kinds

of nourishment. Yet in the conditioned world even life on the

finest and highest level of consciousness must "eat".

Beyond the first dhyana, that is, on the third through ninth

grounds, none of the five consciousnesses arise.

THE GROUNDS ON WHICH THE CONSCIOUSNESSES ARISE

=================================================================

Consciousnesses: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Grounds

9. Neither Cognition nor

Non-Cognition X

8. Nothing Whatsoever P X X

7. Infinite Consciousness P X X

6. Infinite Space P X X

5. Fourth Dhyana P X X

4. Third Dhyana P X X

3. Second Dhyana X X X

2. First Dhyana X X X X X X

1. Realm of Desire:

Six Desire Heavens X X X X X X X X

Ordinary Human

Consciousness X X X X X X X X

...

Avici Hell P X X

P = PARTIAL X = COMPLETE

=================================================================

[They interact with] the universally interactive, the

particular states, the eleven wholesome;

Two intermediate grade, eight major grade, greed, anger, and

foolishness.

The five consciousnesses are called mind-dharmas as are all

of the eight consciousnesses. The five interact with thirty-one

Dharmas Interactive with the Mind. Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind arise from the mind, that is, from mind-dharmas. They are

dependent upon mind-dharmas for their existence, and interact with

them. They represent a finer, secondary level of

distinction-making. The thirty-one are:

a) Five Universally Interactive: attention, contact, feeling,

conceptualization, and deliberation;

b) Five Particular States: desire, resolution,

recollection, concentration, and judgment;

c) Eleven Wholesome States: faith, vigor, shame, remorse, absence

of greed, absence of anger, absence of foolishness, light ease,

non-laxness, renunciation, and non-harming;

d) Two Intermediate-Grade Derivative

Afflictions: lack of shame and lack of remorse;

e) Eight Major-Grade Derivative Afflictions: lack of faith,

laziness, laxness, torpor, restlessness, distraction, improper

knowledge, and forgetfulness.

To say that the first five consciousnesses interact with these

dharmas means that when the first five consciousnesses are

functioning, any of these dharmas may arise and influence them.

The above dharmas are listed in the One Hundred Dharmas under

the second of the five categories: Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind. The other categories of the One Hundred Dharmas are: Mind

Dharmas, Form Dharmas, Dharmas not Interactive with the Mind, and

Unconditioned Dharmas. For further information on the One Hundred

Dharmas, see Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred

Dharmas by Vasubandhu Bodhisattva with Commentary of Tripitaka

Master Hua.

The five consciousnesses are all supported by organs of pure

form.

There are five perceptual organs--eyes, ears, nose, tongue,

and body--which are the basis or support of the activities of the

first five consciousnesses. Each organ has two portions. The first

is the physical organ and its neural pathways, which belongs to the

proximate perceived division of the eighth consciousness. Theperceived division of the eighth consciousness is divided into two

portions, the proximate and the distal. The proximate refers to

the physical aspect of the six faculties, while the distal refers

to the rest of the external world. In other words it is material;

it is categorized as form and is distinguished from other, distal,

forms, which are the objects of the organs' perception.

The second portion is the organ of pure form. The organ of

pure form refers to the organ of pure mental substance within the

physical organ. You don't smell with your physical nose organ but

with the organ of pure form within the physical nose organ. Pure

form refers to the state in which the Four Great Elements are in

perfect equilibrium. Pure form is imperceptible except through

the use of the Heavenly Eye.

That with nine preconditions and those with seven and eight are

close neighbors.

The five consciousnesses have seven, eight, or nine

preconditions for their coming into being. The five are grouped

together and are said to be "close neighbors" because their modes

of functioning are very similar in distinction to the other--sixth,

seventh, and eighth--consciousnesses. The number of causal

preconditions necessary for the rise of the eight consciousnesses

varies from nine to three among the eight consciousnesses. The

nine preconditions are: space, light, faculty, state, attention,

basis of discrimination, basis of defilement and purity,

fundamental basis, and seeds as basis. The basis of discrimination

refers to the sixth consciousness, the basis of defilement and

purity to the seventh consciousness, while the fundamental basis

and seeds as basis refer to the eighth consciousness.

All nine preconditions are necessary for the coming into being

of eye-consciousness, and so the verse refers to eye-consciousness

as "that with nine preconditions". Only eight (no light) are

necessary for ear-consciousness. For nose-, tongue-, and

body-consciousness, seven of the nine are required (no light and

no space). All five consciousnesses have in common their reliance

on the sixth, seventh, and eighth consciousnesses as preconditions

for their manifestation.



NECESSARY PRECONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONSCIOUSNESSES

=================================================================

CONSCIOUSNESSES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Preconditions

1. SPACE X X

2. LIGHT X

3. ORGAN X X X X X X

4. STATE X X X X X X

5. ATTENTION X X X X X X X X

6. BASIS OF

DISCRIMINATION X X X X X

7. BASIS OF

DEFILEMENT AND X X X X X X

PURITY

8. FUNDAMENTAL

BASIS X X X X X X X X

9. SEEDS AS BASIS X X X X X X X X

=================================================================

Three perceive the world of defilement by contact and two

perceive it at a distance.

Eyes and ears perceive at a distance, while nose, tongue, and

body perceive through contact.

The foolish have difficulty distinguishing consciousness from

organ.

"The foolish" refers to the Arhats and lesser beings of the

Hinayana teachings, who are unaware of the Three Divisions of the

Eighth Consciousness:the self-verifying division,the perceiver

division, and the perceived division. "Perceptual organs have the

capability of illuminating states, while consciousnesses have the

capability of making distinctions." (Quoted by Chan Master

Han-Shan, Sying-syang Tung-shwo.)


The transformation of the perceived division in the contemplation of emptiness is merely Later Attained Wisdom.

The objects of the five consciousnesses are the five

"defilers"--sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and tangible objects.

They have their basis in the perceived division of the eighth

consciousness. That is, they are a development of the eighthconsciousness which takes place because of further distinction-

making. The five consciousnesses have their basis in the five

perceptual organs, that is, the organs of pure form and not the

physical organs. As explained above, the physical organ belongs

to the proximate portion of the perceived division, while the organ

of pure form belongs to the perceiver division. In the

contemplation discussed here, attachment to the perceived division

is broken by a change in the functioning of the organ of

At the fruition, if there is still self, there is not total

truth.

"At the fruition", refers to reaching the goal of one's

practice. If the enlightened awareness attained still contains the

distinction, however fine, of subject and object, then it is still

based on the perceiver division and not on the Buddha-mind.

At the initial emergence of perfect clarity, the state of no

outflows is realized.

"Perfect clarity" refers to the Great Mirror Wisdom. Although

on the Eighth Ground the eighth consciousness continues to act as

the supporting basis for the extremely subtle spontaneous

affliction that the Bodhisattva purposely preserves as the vehicle

of his continued rebirth in the world, in every other sense the

eighth consciousness is undefiled and no longer the cause of

rebirth. From the latter point of view, the Eighth Ground marks the

beginning of the laying of the groundwork for the Great Mirror

Wisdom, which is fully realized at Buddhahood. "Initial emergence"

means that on the Eighth Ground the process of the transformation

of the eighth consciousness into the Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom

begins. At that time "the state of no outflows" is realized" as

the innate attachment to self is eliminated.

Using Three Kinds of Transformation Bodies, one brings the wheel

of suffering to rest.

As the eighth consciousness is transformed into the Great

Perfect Mirror Wisdom, the first five consciousnesses are

simultaneously transformed into the Wisdom of Sucessful

Performance. This wisdom is characterized by pure and unimpeded

functioning in its relation to the organs and their objects. In

other words in their teaching and taking living beings across to

the other shore, the Buddhas' use of their seeing, hearing,

smelling, tasting, and touching is completely devoid of attachment

or distortion.

The transformation-bodies are bodies which are created using

spiritual powers and which are transformations or emanations fromthe Dharma-body of the Buddha. (Three Aspects of the Dharma Body

are explained below in the section on the eighth consciousness.)

The Buddhas expediently display for living beings Three Kinds of

Transformation Bodies: 1) a great transformation body to teach the

great Bodhisattvas on the tenth ground (equivalent to the Reward

Body), 2) a small transformation body--the sixteen "foot" physical

body of the Buddha Shakyamuni, and 3) bodies which take on

appearance in accordance with the species of living being taught.

The perceptual functioning of these bodies is accomplished through

the use of the Wisdom of Successful Performance.


PART TWO: THE SIXTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Below, the first four lines discuss the range of the sixth

consciousness; the second four discuss its role in the creation of

karma and in the resultant karmic activity. The final four explain

its transformation into wisdom.

Having Three Natures and with Three Modes of Knowledge, it

pervades the Three States.

The Three Natures are the wholesome, the unwholesome, and the

indeterminate.

The Three Modes of Knowledge are direct perception, inference

and fallacy.

The Three States are the natural state, the state of solitary

impressions, and the state of transposed substance. They have

already been explained above (see Part One, line one).

The sixth consciousness uses all three modes of knowledge in

its awareness of the three states. The Three Natures

refers to classification of the moral nature of its activity. The

distinction-making of the sixth consciousness is considered to be

of a wholesome nature if it is beneficial. Such activity arises

karmically as a result of good roots, that is, it is the fruition

of the seeds planted by wholesome activity in the past. The

situation is the opposite for distinction-making of an unwholesome

nature. Indeterminate distinction-making is neither beneficial nor

non-beneficial and arises from past activity that was

correspondingly so.

The last type, the indeterminate nature, is divided into the

obscuring indeterminate nature and the non-obscuring indeterminate

nature; they will be explained below in the section

ontheseventhconsciousness.

As it turns on the wheel, it easily comes to know the Three

Realms it turns within.

The Three Realms are the realm of desire, the realm of form,

and the formless realm.

What causes our revolving within the Three Realms on the wheel

of the Six Destinies are the distinctions made in the sixth

consciousness. The distinctions lead to karmic activity and then

to karmic retribution. Because of its great power of making

distinctions, the sixth consciousness easily distinguishes and

classifies the different states--environments--of the realms with

which it comes into contact.

It interacts with all fifty-one Dharmas Interactive with the

Mind.

The sixth consciousness interacts with all fifty-one of the

Dharmas Interactive with the Mind. The fifty-one are listed in the

appendix on the One Hundred Dharmas and are described in the

Shastra on the Door to Understanding the Hundred Dharmas.

Whenever it is wholesome or unwholesome, they make distinctions

and accompany it.

When the activity of the sixth consciousness is wholesome, it

is accompanied by the Eleven Wholesome Dharmas of the One Hundred

Dharmas. When its activity is unwholesome, the dharmas of

affliction arise in conjunction with it.

Its Three Natures, the Three States it relates with, and its

Three Kinds of Feeling are constantly in flux.

In other words the moral classification, and so forth, of the

sixth consciousness changes from moment to moment. The sixth

consciousness is involved in a constant flux of distinction-making.

In the case of the Three Natures, wholesome, unwholesome, and

indeterminate indicate the moral categories od its activity; in the

case of the Three States--the natural, and those of solitary

impressions and of transposed substance--the categories indicate

degrees of reality; and in the case of the Three Kinds of Feeling,

the distinctions of pleasure, of pain, and of neutral feelings

classify the emotional and perceptual experiences we undergo on

their most fundamental level of reception. One difference between

the Three Natures and the Three Kinds of Feeling is that the former

is an analysis of causal activity and the latter is an analysis of

experiential effect.

The basic and subsidiary afflictions together with faith and other wholesome dharmas always arise jointly with the sixth

consciousness.

The afflictions and wholesome dharmas are all dependent upon

the sixth consciousness. In other words they are not really

separate from it but represent further categorization of

distinctions within it. However, as explained above, depending on

the nature of the sixth consciousness at any particular moment, the

afflictions and the wholesome dharmas do not necessarily all arise

together, that is, at the same time.

In physical action and in speech it is the most important.

In the creation of karma the volitional activity of the sixth

consciousness plays the most important role. Examination and

decision, which are both functions of the sixth consciousness, lead

to activity, which creates both speech and bodily karma.

It brings to completion by its ability to summon forth the power

of karma that leads [to rebirth].

This line further explains the karma-generating power of the

sixth consciousness. It brings about karmic activity that leads to

retribution, which is the completion of the three-stage karmic

process: 1) giving rise to delusion, 2) creating karma, and 3)

undergoing retribution. When karma is created, seeds are planted

in the eighth consciousness. At the time of rebirth it is the

ripening of those seeds, "the power of karma", that draws the

eighth consciousness back into the suffering of the Six Paths of

Rebirth.

When the state of mind that is the initial phase of the Ground of

Rejoicing arises,

The Ground of Rejoicing is the first of the Ten Grounds of

the Bodhisattva's Path. Each of the ten is divided into the

initial (or entering), dwelling, and departing phases.

Innate attachments still spontaneously appear as bonds and

latent tendencies.

The two major kinds of attachment, to self and to dharmas,

are further divided into two types: innate and distinguished.

Innate are present at birth, and distinguished are learned

subsequently. At this point, when the sixth consciousness begins

to be transformed into the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation, thedistinguished attachments have already been eliminated. The

distinguished belong to the sixth consciousness, while the innate

ones are found in both sixth and seventh. The innate are slowly

eradicated up through the tenth ground. The latent tendencies refer

to the seeds of the affliction-obstacle and of the obstacle of the

knowable. Therefore, the line indicates that even at the point of

entrance onto the First Ground innate attachments still exist in

the sixth consciousness, both as manifest "bonds" and as latent

potentials or "seeds".

After the Far-reaching Ground, it is purified and without

outflows.

The Far-reaching Ground is the seventh ground of the

Bodhisattva. At the eighth ground, called the Unmoving Ground,

one is without outflows. The sixth consciousness's attachment to

the perceiver-division of the eighth, storehouse, consciousness as

being the Self is abandoned, so there is no longer any attachment

to self, only to dharmas.

How the seventh consciousness becomes attached to the

perceiver division of the eighth consciousness as the self is

explained in the initial section on the seventh consciousness.

When the Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation becomes fully bright,

it illuminates the universe.

At Buddhahood the transformation of consciousness into wisdom

is completed, and the light of the Wisdom of Wonderful

Contemplation illuminates everywhere.


PART THREE: THE SEVENTH CONSCIOUSNESS

The state of transposed substance that has the obscuring

indeterminate nature is the connection between the sentience

and the basis.

The state of transposed substance has two modes: the real and

the seeming. Real transposed substance refers to the seventh

consciousness relating to the eighth consciousness by falsely

transposing the latter's perceiver division into a 'self'. That

'self' has no reality of its own, but is based upon the substance

of the perceiver division of the eighth consciousnesss. [The

seeming transposed substance refers to the sixth consciousness's

relations with external states.]

The obscuring indeterminate nature is one of two modes of theindeterminate nature, the third of the Three Natures. The other

mode is the non-obscuring indeterminate nature. Obscuring refers

to those states of consciousness that have the function of,

literally, 'covering' one's true nature. That is what the the

seventh consciousness does. As will be explained, it 'covers'--it

destorts the true nature of--the perceiver division of the eighth

consciousness. The non-obscuring nature refers to the perceived

division of the eighth consciousness. It is said to be

non-obscuring because it does not distort or obscure the true

nature of the mind.

In between the seventh consciousness--'sentience' in the

verse--and the perceiver division of the eighth

consciousness--'basis' in the verse--there arises a state of

transposed substance, which is the object of the seventh

consciousness and which is identified by the seventh consciousness

as being the 'self'. This is the process that obscures one's true

nature.

According with conditions and attached to self, its mode of

knowledge is fallacy.

As the seventh consciousness transmits information between

the eighth consciousness and the first six consciusnesses, it

overlays the information with self, thereby invovling the first

six consciousnesses in its own fallacy.

The 'conditions', or situation, are those described in the

first line: the state of transposed substance arising in between

the seventh and eighth consciousnesses.

The four types of attachment to self are described in line

four below.

Fallacy is the third of the Three Modes of Knowledge, already

mentioned above, the first two being direct, veridical perception

and inference. The seventh consciousness's attachment is innate

and, therefore, a fundamentally fallacious mode of knowledge; it

is not based on wrong inference as is the case with the sixth

consciousness's coarse, distinguished, attachment to self. (The

sixth consciousness also has a subtle, innate, attachment to self.)

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions; the universally

interactive; of the particular states, judgment;

Self-love; self-delusion; view of self; and self-conceit all

interact and accord with it.

The eight major-grade derivative afflictions are lack of

faith, laziness, laxness, torpor, restlessness, distraction,improper knowledge, and scatteredness.

The five universally interactive dharmas are attention,

contact, feeling, conceptualization, and deliberation.

Self-love, self-delusion, view of self, and self-conceit are

known as the Four Types of Delusion. The four arise because of

one of the Five Particular States, judgment, which refers to

decision-making based wholly on worldly knowledge which is defiled

by self. "Judgment" ceases to operate on the grounds of the sages,

that is, from the eighth ground on. 'It' refers to the seventh

consciousness. All of the eighteen dharmas listed here are

dependent upon the seventh consciousness for their existence and

all interact with it.

It continuously focuses its mental activity on inquiry which

results in the characteristic that is self.

The seventh consciousness, in conjunction with the

abovementioned mind-dependent dharmas, continously focuses on the

perceiver division of the eighth consciousness, inquires into its

nature, and erroneously ascertains that it is the true self.

In contradistinction to the other consciousnessess the seventh

consciousness both functions continuously and engages in mental

inquiry.

CONTINUOUS FUNCTIONING AND MENTAL INQUIRY IN RELATION TO THE EIGHT

CONSCIOUSNESSES

=================================================================

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

continuous functioning X X

mental inquiry X X

=================================================================

Day and night it reduces sentient beings to a state of

confusion.

It is the seventh consciousness that keeps beings revolving

on the wheel of rebirth. It is innate attachment to self that is

the basis of our continued rebirth.

The Four Delusions and the Eight Major-Grade Derivative

Afflictions arise interacting with it.

It is the Four Delusions, mentioned in line four above, and

the EightMajor-Grade Derivative Afflictions, mentioned in linethree above, that constitute "the state of confusion" of living

beings.

When the sixth consciousness is functioning, the seventh is

called the basis of defilement and purity.

The seventh consciousness is the mind-organ and as such is

the basis of the sixth consciousness, which distinguishes what is

defiled and what is pure.

During the initial phase of the Ground of Extreme Rejoicing, the

Wisdom whose Nature is Equality begins to appear.

The seventh consciousness automatically begins to be

transformed as the sixth is transformed. The seventh has no power

of its own to eliminate delusion, because its delusions are all

innate rather than distinguished. Through meditations utilizing

the sixth consciousness, attachment to self is eliminated, but

attachment to dharmas still remains.

Practice becomes effortless and the self is destroyed for good.

On the eighth ground of the Bodhisattva all further

cultivation is spontaneous and without personal effort because

there is no longer any self.

The Thus Come One appears [in a body] for the Enjoyment of Others

The Dharma-Body of a Buddha has three different aspects: 1)

the Body of Self-Mastery, 2) the Enjoyment Body, which in turn has

two aspects--self enjoyment and enjoyment of others, and 3)

transformation bodies.


As an opportunity for Bodhisattvas of the Tenth Ground.

The Buddhas use their Enjoyment Bodies to teach and transform

the Bodhisattvas who are on the tenth ground.


PART FOUR: THE EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS

Its nature is exclusively the non-obscuring indeterminate, and

it interacts with the Five Universally Interactive Dharmas.

Before its transformation into wisdom, the eighth

consciousness always arises together with the seventh consciousness

and the Five Universally Interactive Dharmas: attention, contact,

feeling, conceptualization, and deliberation. The nature of the

eighth consciousness is said to be "non-obscuring" because it does

not obscure True Thusness. The eighth consciousness can also be

said to be "unobscured" because its own nature is not obscured by

the mind-dependent dharmas that arise with it. It is indeterminate

because, being passive, it does not make the distinctions of

wholesome and unwholesome or any other distinctions.

The eighth consciousness contains seeds, karmic potentials

created by previous karmic activities. The seeds ripen and become

actual dharmas as they are "perfumed" by the karmic activity of

the first seven consciousnesses. The image here is built on an

analogy with of sesame seeds, which take on the fragrance of the

sesame plant's flowers or of any fragrance with which they come

into contact.

The Three Realms with their Nine Grounds come into being in

accord with the power of karma.

Although the eighth consciousness does not create karma

because it is totally passive in function, the seeds stored within

it ripen to create actual dharmas that are the Three Realms and the

Nine Grounds. [The Nine Grounds are explained above in the

explanation of the second line of the verse describing the first

five consciousnesses.]

Because of their confused attachments, those of the Two Vehicles

don't comprehend it;

And based upon those attachments, there arise the disputes of

the shastra masters.

Only the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are capable of direct

awareness of the eighth consciousness, because its states are so

subtle. That is why those of the Hinayana vehicles deny its

existence. The Treatise on Consciousness-Only gives scriptural

references to it from both Mahayana and Hinayana scriptures

together with logical arguments for the necessity of its existence.

How vast and unfathomable is the threefold alaya!

Alaya means "storehouse". Because it is a "storehouse" of

seeds, storehouse consciousness (alayavijnana) is one of the names

by which the eighth consciousness is known. "Threefold" refers

to three aspects of the eighth consciousness: it contains seeds,

it is 'perfumed', and the seventh consciousness takes it to be theself.

Generated by the winds of states, seven waves arise from its

depths.

"Its depths" refers to the extent of the eighth consciousness,

which is compared to the ocean. The first seven consciousnesses

arise from the eighth consciousness in the same manner as waves

arise on the surface of the sea. The wind represents "states", the

causes and conditions for the consciousnesses arising. The causes

and conditions "perfume" seeds in the eighth consciousness, causing

them to sprout, to become actual dharmas. The first seven

consciousnesses and the Dharmas Interactive with the Mind

associated with them all come into being from seeds stored in the

eighth consciousness.

It undergoes perfuming and contains the seeds both of the body

with its organs and of the material world.

The body with its perceptual organs and the entire physical

world also arise from seeds contained in the eighth consciousness.

After going and before coming, it's in control.

At death the first seven consciousnesses are reabsorbed into

the eighth consciousness. At birth they are regenerated as

separate consciousnesses. "After going and before coming" refers

to the intermediate state between death and rebirth. Dureing that

period the eighth consciousness is "in control."

The line could also be interpreted as meaning that at death

the eighth consciousness is the last to leave the old body, and at

birth it is the first to begin functioning.

Before the Unmoving Ground attachment to the storehouse is

finally relinquished.

The Unmoving Ground is the Eighth Ground. Prior to the eighth

ground, that is, on the seventh ground, the seventh consciousness

relinquishes its innate attachment to the eighth or storehouse

consciousness being the self. This takes place as the seventh

consciousness transforms itself into the Wisdom Whose Nature is

Equality.

Upon completion of the vajra Path, it is empty of the ripening of

results.

The vajra Path, "the Path of indestructible substance", refers

to the eighth through tenth grounds and, in addition, the stage ofEqual Enlightenment. Due to the absence of self and because the

Bodhisattva contemplates the emptiness of both self and dharmas

during this period, no fresh defiling karma is created, but "the

ripening of results" continues: seeds planted in the past continue

to ripen into actual karmic retribution. However, at Buddhahood the

eighth consciousness is finally emptied of ripening seeds of future

karma. In other words, no seeds remain in the mind that could give

rise to future outflows or impurities.

The Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom and the undefiled

consciousness are produced at the same time,

At Buddhahood the transformation of the eighth consciousness

into the Great Perfect Mirror Wisdom is complete, and consciousness

can be said to be totally undefiled. It is this pure

"consciousness" that is called True Thusness.

And in the ten directions universally illuminate Buddha-fields as

countless as motes of dust.

The light of wisdom emitted from the Dharma Body of the Buddha

illumintes everywhere.

The ten directions are north, south, east, west, northeast,

northwest, southeast, southwest, above, and below.

A Buddha-field or Buddhaland refers to where a Buddha resides,

a "land" created by the power of great compassion to aid in

teaching living beings and in taking them across to Buddhahood.


IV. APPENDICES

A. DHARMAS INTERACTIVE WITH THE MIND AND THE EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES

=================================================================

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

UNIVERSALLY INTERACTIVE

attention X X X X

contact X X X X

feeling X X X X

conceptualization X X X X

deliberation X X X X

PARTICULAR STATES

desire X X

resolution X X

recollection X X

judgment X X X

WHOLESOME STATES

faith X X

vigor X X

shame X X

remorse X X

absence of greed X X

absence of hatred X X

absence of foolishness X X

light ease X X

non-laxness X X

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

renunciation X X

non-harming X X

SIX FUNDAMENTAL AFFLICTIONS

greed X X

anger X X

foolishness X X

arrogance X

doubt X

IMPROPER VIEWS

self-delusion X X

view of self X X

self-conceit X X

self-love X X

extreme views X

false views X

TWENTY DERIVATIVE AFFLICTIONS

TEN MINOR GRADE

wrath X

hatred X

rage X

covering X

deceit X

flattery X

conceit X

Consciousnesses: 1-5 6 7 8

-----------------------------------------------------------------

harming X

jealousy X

stinginess X

TWO INTERMEDIATE GRADE

lack of shame X X

lack of remorse X X

EIGHT MAJOR GRADE

lack of faith X X X

laziness X X X

laxness X X X

torpor X X X

restlessness X X X

distraction X X X

improper knowledge X X X

scatteredness X X X

FOUR UNFIXED

sleep X

regret X

examination X

investigation X

=================================================================

B. GLOSSARY OF SPECIAL TERMS

basis asraya

Buddha-field buddha-kshetra

characteristics of dharmas dharma-laksana

consciousness. vijnana

continuous functioning Ch. chang

delineating Ch. gwei jyu

dhyana Ch. chan

ground bhumi

interactive with the mind caitta, caitasika

latent tendencies anusaya

meditative inquiry Ch. tsan chan

mental inquiry Ch. shen sz

mind-organ manas

no outflows anasrava

organ of pure form Ch. jing sz gen

perceived division nimitta-bhaga

perceiver division darshana-bhaga

ripening of results vipaka

seeds bija

state Ch. jye, jing jye

storehouse alaya

storehouse consciousness alayavijnana

three baskets tripitaka

transformation body Skt. nisyanda-kaya

True Thusness bhutatathata, Ch. jen ru

undefiled amala

vajra Path vajra-marga

C. CONSCIOUSNESS-ONLY SCHOOL LISTS


TWO KINDS OF WISDOM (Ch. er jung jr)

1) Fundamental wisdom (Skt. mula-jnana, Ch. gen ben jr)

2) Later attained wisdom (Skt. prstalabdha-jnana, Ch. hou de

jr)

TWO OBSTACLES (er jang)

1) Obstacle of the afflictions (Skt. klesavarana)

2) Obstacle of the knowable (Skt. jneyavarana)

THREE ASPECTS OF THE ALAYAVIJNANA (san jung e lai ye shr)

1) Container of seeds (Skt. sarvabijaka, Ch. neng dzang)

2) Undergoes "perfuming" (Ch. swo dzang)

3) Taken to be self by seventh consciousness (Ch. wo ai jr

dzang)

THREE ASPECTS OF THE DHARMA BODY (Ch. san jung fa shen)

1) Self-mastery (Skt. svabhavika-kaya, Ch. dz sying shen)

2) Enjoyment (Skt. sambhoga-kaya, Ch. shou yung shen)

3) Transformation (Skt. nirmana-kaya, Ch. byan hwa shen)

THREE DIVISIONS OF THE BUDDHIST CANON (Skt. tripitaka, Ch. san

dzang)

1) Sutra (Ch. jing)

2) Vinaya (Ch. lyu)

3) Abhidharma (Ch. lwun)

THREE DIVISIONS OF THE EIGHTH CONSCIOUSNESS (Ch. ba shr san fen)

1) Self-verifying division (Skt.

svasamvittibhaga, Ch. dz jeng fen)

2) Perceiver division (Skt. darsanabhaga, Ch. jyan fen)

3) Perceived division (Skt. nimittabhaga, Ch. syang fen)

THREE KINDS OF FEELING (Skt. vedana, Ch. san shou)

1) pleasurable (Skt. sukha, Ch. le)

2) painful (Skt. duhkha, Ch. ku)

3) neutral (Skt. aduhkhasukha, Ch. bu ku bu le)

THREE KINDS OF TRANSFORMATION BODIES

1) great transformation

2) small transformation

3) bodies that accord with the species of living beings

THREE MODES OF KNOWLEDGE (Skt. pramana, Ch. san lyang)

1) direct, veridical perception (Skt. pratyaksa, Ch. syan

lyang)

2) inference (Skt. anumana, Ch. bi lyang)

3) fallacy (Skt.abhasa, Ch. fei lyang)

THREE NATURES (Ch. san sying)

1) wholesome (Skt. kusala, Ch. shan)

2) unwholesome (Skt. akusala, Ch. e)

3) indeterminate (Skt. avyakrta, Ch. wu ji)

THREE STATES (Skt. avastha, Ch. san jing)

1) natural state (Ch. sying jing)

2) state of solitary impressions (Ch. du ying jing)

3) state of transposed substance (Ch. dai jr ching)

THREE STEPS IN THE CREATION OF KARMA (Ch. san sz)

1) mental inquiry (Ch. shen lu)

2) decision (Ch.jywe ding)

3) action (Ch. fa dung)

THREE REALMS (Ch. san jye)

1) realm of desire (Skt. kamadhatu, Ch. yu jye)

2) realm of form (Skt. rupadhatu, Ch. sz/shai jye)

3) formless realm (Skt. arupyadhatu, Ch. wu sz/shai jye)

FOUR KINDS OF NOURISHMENT (Skt. catvara-ahara,Ch. sz shr)

1) mouthfuls (Skt. kavali-kara-ahara, Ch. dwan shr)

2) mental contact (Skt. sparsa-ahara, Ch. chu shr)

3) volition (Skt. manah-sancetana-ahara, Ch. sz shr)

4) consciousness (Skt. vijnana-ahara, Ch. shr shr)

FOUR KINDS OF WISDOM (Skt. jnana, Ch. sz jr)

1) Great Mirror Wisdom (Skt. adarsa-jnana, Ch. da ywan jing

jr)

2) Wisdom of Equality (Skt. samata-jnana, Ch. ping deng sying jr)

3) Wisdom of Wonderful Contemplation (Skt.pratyaveksana-jnana, Ch. myau gwan cha jr)

4) Wisdom of Successful Performance (Skt. krityanusthana-

jnana, Ch. cheng swo dzwo jr)

FOUR TYPES OF DELUSION (Ch. sz hwo/hwei)

1) self-love (Skt. atma-sneha, Ch. wo ai, wo tan)

2) self-delusion (Skt. atma-moha, Ch. wo chr)

3) view of self (Skt. atma-drsti, Ch. wo jyan)

4) self-conceit (Skt. atma-mana, Ch. wo man)

SIX DESTINIES (Skt. gati, Ch. lyou chyu)

1) gods (Skt. deva, Ch. tyan)

2) humans (Skt. manusya, Ch. ren)

3) asuras (Skt. asura, Ch. e syou lwo)

4) animals (Skt. tiryagyoni, Ch. chu sheng)

5) ghosts (Skt. preta, Ch. e gwei)

6) hell-dwellers (Skt. nairayika, Ch. di yu)

SIX PATHS OF REBIRTH See SIX DESTINIES

EIGHT CONSCIOUSNESSES (Skt. vijnana, Ch. ba shr)

1) eye-consciousness (Skt. caksur-vijnana, Ch. yan shr)

2) ear-consciousness (Skt. srotra-vijnana, Ch. er shr)

3) nose-consciousness (Skt. ghrana-vijnana, Ch. bi shr)

4) tongue-consciousness (Skt. jihva-vijnana, Ch. she shr)

5) body-consciousness (Skt. kaya-vijnana, Ch. shen shr)

6) mind-consciousness (Skt. mano-vijnana, Ch. yi shr)

7) defiled/defiling mind-consciousness (Skt. klista-mano-

vijnana, manas, Ch. yi)

NINE GROUNDS (Skt. navanupurvavihara, Ch. jyou di)

1) Realm of desire (Skt. kama-dhatu, Ch. yu jye)

2) First Dhyana (Skt. prathama-dhyana, Ch. chu chan)

3) Second Dhyana (Skt. dvitiya-dhyana, Ch. er chan)

4) Third Dhyana (Skt. trtiya-dhyana, Ch. san chan)

5) Fourth Dhyana (Skt. caturtha-dhyana, Ch. sz chan)

6) Infinite Space (Skt. akasanantyayatana, Ch. kung wu byan

chu)

7) Infinite Consciousness (Skt. vijnananantyayatana, Ch. shr

wu byan chu)

8) Nothing Whatsoever (Skt. akincanantyayatana, Ch. wu swo

you chu)

9) Neither Cognition Nor Non-Cognition (Skt.

naivasamjnasamjnayatana, Ch. fei syang fei fei syang chu)

NINE PRECONDITIONS (Ch. jyou ywan)

1) Space (Ch. kung)

2) Light (Ch. ming)

3) Organ (Ch. gen)

4) State (Ch. jing)

5) Attention (Ch. dzwo yi)

6) Basis of Discrimination (Ch. fen bye yi)

7) Basis of Defilement and Purity (Ch. ran jing yi)

8) Fundamental Basis (Ch. gen ben yi)

9) Seeds as Basis (Ch. jung dz yi)

TEN GROUNDS (Skt. dasa-bhumi, Ch. shr di)

1) Ground of Happiness (Skt. pramudita-bhumi, Ch. hwan syi di)

2) Ground of Leaving Filth (Skt. vimala-bhumi, Ch. li gou di)

3) Ground of Emitting Light (Skt. prabhakari-bhumi, Ch. fa

wang di)

4) Ground of Blazing Wisdom (Skt. arcismati-bhumi, Ch. yan

hwei di)

5) Ground of Invincibility (Skt. sudurjaya-bhumi, Ch. nan

sheng di)

6) Ground of Manifestation (Skt. abhimukhi-bhumi, Ch. syan

chyan di)

7) Ground of Travelling Far (Skt. duramgama-bhumi, Ch. ywan

sying di)

8) Ground of Not Moving (Skt. acala-bhumi, Ch. bu dung di)

9) Ground of Good Wisdom (Skt. sadhumati-bhumi, Ch. shan hwei di)

10) Ground of the Dharma Cloud (Skt. dharmamegha-bhumi, Ch.

fa yun di)

ONE HUNDRED DHARMAS See Shastra on the Door to Understanding

the Hundred Dharmas.

D. WORKS CITED

Han-Shan (Ta Shr). Sying-syang Tung-shwo. Ming Dynasty; rpt.Taipei: Fo-jyau Chu-ban She, 1976.

Hui-li. Life of Hsuan Tsang.

Maitreya (Bodhisattva). Yogacarabhumi-Sastra (Treatise on the

Stages of Yoga Practice). Ch. yu chye shr di lun. T. 1579.

Sywan-Dzang (Tripitaka Master). Cheng Wei-Shih Lun (Treatise on

Consciousness-Only). T. 1509. (Reconstructed into Sanskrit as

vijnaptimatratasiddhi.)

Vasubandhu (Bodhisattva). Shastra on the Door to Understanding

the Hundred Dharmas with Commentary by Tripitaka Master Hua.

Talmage: Buddhist Text Translation Society, 1983.

Vasubandhu (Bodhisattva). Trimsaka (Thirty Verses on

Consciousness-Only). Ch. Wei-shr san-shr lun