Go-ahead for GM insect release
By BBC News Online's Helen Briggs
The first release of a genetically modified insect is expected to take
place in the United States this
A moth has been engineered to contain a gene from a jellyfish in the
first stage of a genetic experiment
designed to eradicate the cotton-destroying pest from the wild.
A total of 3,600 of the moths will be set free under a cage within a
one-hectare (three-acre) cotton field in
Our ultimate plans are to insert conditional lethal genes
UCL entomologist Thomas Miller
The experiment is likely to raise concern among environmental groups.
But the researchers behind it say there is "minimal" risk of the genetically
modified insects escaping. As an
added precaution, the insects have been sterilised.
Thomas Miller of the Department of Entomology, University of California,
told BBC News Online: "It is
very important for us that the public understands what we're doing and why. We are not trying to create
something that causes more trouble than we already have.
"We have plenty of trouble with pink bollworm. It's an absolute nightmare
and it's caused a lot of people
to go bankrupt.
"There's two things about this release. Number one, we're only going
to use sterilised insects in the first
go around. Even if they get out, there's no chance of them breeding.
"Second of all, they are going to be in field cages. The people who
are going to do this work have years of
experience working with these field cages.
"They know what is involved in maintaining them and the only way an
enclosed population is going to get
loose is if a hurricane comes through and rips the field cages to shreds. There hasn't been a hurricane in
Arizona in these areas in living memory.
"One thing we do know: the native population is a champion at survival.
It has so far resisted any
attempts to eradicate it except in central California.
"Our ultimate plans are to insert conditional lethal genes that will
fight against this enormously successful
tendency to survive and infest cotton."
US regulators have yet to give the greenlight to the release but Professor
Miller says he is optimistic the
field trials, planned for the summer, will be given the go-ahead in the next few weeks.
The pink bollworm, a major pest of commercial cotton in the southwest,
is not native to the US but
hitched a ride there in the 1920s, probably in cotton shipments from India.
The larvae are tiny white caterpillars with dark brown heads that burrow
into cotton bolls causing
devastation to the crop. They grow into greyish-brown moths.
The engineered moths contain a genetic marker, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) derived from the
jellyfish, which makes caterpillars inheriting the gene glow green under fluorescent light.
In the first stage of the experiment, the scientists plan to release
the moths under a seven-metre (24-foot)
long cage in a small test site remote from commercial cotton fields.
The field trials could pave the way for the first attempt to eradicate
insects from the wild by releasing
genetically modified laboratory strains. By inserting an inherited lethal trait into the moth the scientists
believe they might be able to "get rid of the pink bollworm" from the US altogether.
Similar research is focusing on the disease-carrying mosquito. Researchers
from the US and Taiwan have
modified the yellow fever mosquito to make it produce a powerful antibacterial protein, limiting its ability
to transmit disease.
If such insects were ever released in the wild, they might supplant
infected natural populations, helping in
the fight against human disease.
Besides insects, a number of other transgenic animals are on the way. The US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) is currently deciding whether to allow a fast-growing genetically modified salmon
on to American dinner plates. Scientists believe genetically modified carp may already be in commercial
use in China while genetically modified tilapia may be in use in Cuba.
Other examples of aquatic GMOs include transgenic channel catfish, modified
Pacific oysters and hybrid