Unit 7 Behaviorism



1. The major principle of behaviorism was that psychology should study covert responses.

2. Darwin and others believed that animals and humans had similar behaviors, whether or not either or both had minds.

3. Functionalism attempted to answer the question of how; structuralism answered the question of what.

4. Structuralism is like physiology, and functionalism is like anatomy.

5. One of the leading functionalists was Wundt.

6. It is perhaps not surprising that functionalism and subsequently behaviorism had its roots in the corn belt of America, Columbia University.

7. Dewey's reflex arC referred to the fact that there is no simple division between a stimulus and a response.

8. The law of exercise stated that the more practice the stronger was the habit.

9. The law of effect said that the effect of practice was increased learning.

10. Skinner's reinforcement theory is based upon Thorndike's law of effect.

11. Logical positivism was a psychological theory that ideas were the basic reality.

12. Pragmatism, operationism, logical positivism, all were similar in emphasizing the importance of concrete knowledge.


13. Behaviorism is based on reflexology.

4. The French reflexologists were Descartes, Pavlov and Sechenov.

15. The Human Machine was written by an English reflexologist.

16. The Bell Magendie Law states that the sensory nerves enter from the rear and motor nerves from the front of the spinal cord.

17. The Bell Magendie Law was significant because it showed there were to different kinds of peripheral nerves with two different functions.

18. When the rear root of the sensory-motor nerve is cut, the animal can still move voluntarily but will not move when stimulated.

19. When the front root of the sensory motor is cut, the animal can move but can sense nothing.

20. Sechenov showed that one can inhibit the peripheral reflexes, thus that he central nervous system could control the peripheral.

21. Pavlov's conditioning was the substitution of a neutral stimulus for a natural stimulus which produced a reflex.

22. The term reflexology was coined by a Frenchman, LaMettrie.

23. The importanCe of using subjective data for study, the major tenet of behaviorism, was first proposed by Cattell in 1904.

24. Behaviorism is said to have started with Watson's paper in 1913.

25. Watson advocated discarding all subjective ideas, such as the mind, and study only objective phenomena, such as muscular reactions and glandular secretions.

26. Wa.son was also in favor of the methodology of the structuralists, the use of introspection to obtain information.

27. Using objective methods, such as brain extirpation, to understand the underlying correlates of behavior, was furthered by Watson.

28. Behaviorism-was attractive to Americans because it was anti-intellectual, relatively simple, had practical implications such as social control, and had an environmental bias.

29. Because of its mechanistic model, behaviorism appeared adaptable to solving many practical problems.

30. Behaviorism, along with sensitivity training, advocated changing persons by changing the environment.

31. The environmental bias is very strong in behaviorism. A common point between behaviorism and psychoanalysis is that both recognize that adolescence is the most crucial period in the development of personality.

32. A common tie between McDougall and the behaviorists is the instinct doctrine.

33. One of the most complex behavioral theories was that of Guthrie's.

34. Guthrie's theory was primarily associationistic.

35. Contiguity theory maintains that learning occurs because of a stamping in or stamping out of positive or negative experiences.

36. Theories that attribute learning to the occurrence of a satisfying state of affairs are reinforcement theories.

37. Hedonistic theories are often referred to as contiguity theories.


38. Guthrie's theory assumes that at least one practice is necessary.

39. Guthrie maintains that the more you practice the same response, the better you learn something.

40. Hull was the leader in what became known as the Harvard School of Psychology.

41. Hull's system was called a mathematico-deductive theory.

42. Habit strength was a major concept in Hull's theory and referred to the strength of the drive.

43. "Reaction potential" could be predicted from the habit strength of the other variables.

44. Secondary drives include such things as hunger and thirst.

45. Skinner's claims that intervening variables such as attitudes are necessary variables in predicting behavior.

46. Skinner placed more emphasis on contiguity than did Guthrie.

47. Skinner referred to classical conditioning as respondent conditioning.

48. Operant conditioning was Skinner's term for Pavlovian conditioning.

49. The way in which reinforcement occurred produced different kinds of schedules of reinforcement

50. Tolman attempted to combine behaviorism with psychoanalytic theory.

51. VTE refers to "very true experiences."

52. Tolman attributed learning to a change in a person's cognitive structures.

53. Tolman is a good example of a peripheralist.

54. Behavior modification techniques utilize avoidance conditioning and systematic desensitization,


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