1. (p. 14). During the English reformation, Henry VIII sought political power for himself and resisted the allegiance to Rome, as required by the Catholic Church, which materially interfered with his claims to power. Henry, therefore, declared that England would establish its own ecclesiastical hierarchy. This he did in 1534. The underlying reason was simply sex. Henry, married to a woman whom he did not love, and desiring to marry Anne Boylen, requested a divorce which the church did not grant. He proceeded to marry Anne, was excommunicated by the church, and then set up his own church, the Anglican Church of England. Elizabeth, the only child of this marriage, attempted later to defend the church against extremist Puritans and conservative Catholics who criticized her for withholding support for their individual points of view.

2. (p. 15). Winthrop was the first governor of Massachusetts. He came over in one of the early boats carrying Puritans to the new land. He was a member of a group who believed that the only way to live God's laws was to disengage from heathen England. But they were not extremists, like the "separatists" who wished to divorce themselves completely from society. The separatists wanted to live in another world, an other-worldiness. The Puritans, on the other hand, were Congregationalists who wished to remain "in the world" and did not wish to reject the Protestant clergy or principles. As a matter of fact, they believed that God willed that man be a part "of this world," and that God tested our resistance against evil and sin. Man needed to deal with temptation and do so successfully. The Puritans believed that since England had become corrupt beyond redemption, the only salvation was migration to the New World.

Their migration to New England was aided by a royal grant placing the lands in the hands of overseers or managers of what were later "magistrates," or rulers, and judges. Winthrop was a part of this group. In the process of forming the new colony, the lay person or free man was given an opportunity to express his ideas and wishes and Winthrop encouraged a tolerant and paternalistic approach in which the common man could elect representatives to speak for him in the councils of government. It was necessary to make clear, however, that the purpose of government was to insure that God's will was enforced. There was to be no tolerance for deviance from God's commandments.

3. (p. 18). The American Home Missionary Society was founded in 1835 and it was largely Presbyterian. It was later joined by the Congregationalists who sent out young men from Congregational colleges and seminaries to cover the Western United States. By 1844 there were 719 agents sent out by the Missionary Society; 481 of these were pastors. These church representatives were instrumental in establishing America's western frontiers.

4. (p. 23). Scotland is in the northern part of the British Isles and in line with the northern cities of Copenhagen, Moscow, Helsinki, and Stockholm. The whole of Scotland lies within the latitudes of northern Canada and Newfoundland, mostly uninhabited territory. There are but a few major cities. Glasgow is on the Firth of Clyde on the western border near the North Channel, which runs between the Hebrides and the Irish Sea.

Further east, along the North Sea cost, lay the other cities -- Iverness, Aberdeen, Dundee, Stirling, and Edinburgh, in that order, from north to south. Large coal fields stretch like chains from east to west between the North and Irish Seas. Population and industry is most heavily concentrated around Glasgow, the largest city, and center of the only extensive group of coal fields in the north.

5. (p. 29). The concern that some graduate programs in psychology were so being used prompted The American Board of Professional Psychology to urge the American Psychological Association (APA) to "take a firm and public stand in opposition to the terminal masters degree in clinical psychology and personal counseling," and for Division 12 (Clinical) of APA to state that: "In some instances these programs seem designed to augment tuition income leading to the rapid expansion of numbers enrolled in courses without corresponding concern about the intimate apprenticeship training required in any professional field and without regard to the dwindling job market for masters level people (APA Monitor, March, 1976, v. 7, No. 3, p. 9)."

UNIT 4 TAble of Contents