UNIT 3

True-False

After you score yourself, be sure to go back and change each of the false statements to make it true. All of the statements are getting at something important in the unit. You should try to change the false statements two different ways -- by either changing the subject or by changing the predicate. Many times, you can change it only one way.

1. The four major centuries in the history of psychology are: 16th, 17th, 19th, 20th. (3)

2. The greatest century is the 18th because of all the scientific advancements made. (3)

3. Durant conceived of Luther and Erasmus as opposites in character and personality. (4)

4. The primary qualities of the universe were those existing only in the sensation of someone. (5)

5. Color is a secondary quality. (5)

6. The idol of the cave was an allegory advanced by Galileo. (6)

7. Bacon was a "raw empiricist." (6)

8. Bacon was famous for deductive reasoning. (6)

9. Modern philosophy begins with Bacon because he directed man's attention to himself. (11)

10. Descartes' famous line, which summarizes his philosophy is "to be is to be perceived." (11)

11. Dualism was advanced through the notion of primary and secondary qualities. (11)

12. Psychophysical parallelism was a kind of dualism. (11)

13. Cartesian philosophy or mathematics refers to Descartes' philosophy or math. (15, 14)

14. Descartes was the father of clinical psychology. (12)

15. Descartes placed the point of coordination between mind and matter in the heart. (12)


16. Descartes began the modern controversy over whether mind, body, or both were primary factors in understanding human condition. (12)

17. A priori principles are those which are assumed to be true, requiring no verification. (13)

18. Leibnitz was a political recluse. (18)

19. Leibnitz is noted for contradicting Locke and claiming that the mind is active, and does possess something at birth. (19)

20. The mind acts upon, transforms material phenomenon into ideas or understanding, as the alchemist might change iron into gold. (19)

21. In this sense, Leibnitz was a monist. (20)

22. At the basis of the universe were centers of force similar to atoms. (20)

23. Leibnitz's basic notion was the tabula rasa, a blank tablet. (19)

24. The English school of physics (Newton) explained light in much the same way as the philosopher explained ideas - namely via corpuscles or matter changes. (28-29)

25. Locke's secondary qualities were these material substances.(29)

26. Berkeley explained awareness of the outside by placing emphasis on the inside the subjective. The muscle sense tells us about "space." (34)

27. Berkeley was a peripheralist, emphasizing the environment. (35)

28. Hume believed that cause and effect relationships were merely illusion, one never really could be sure of causes or of reality! (35)

29. Impressions were sensations from which ideas were the faint copies. (36)

30. Hartley turned Humes' ideas into a more physiological model by suggesting that impressions were of differing degrees of vibration, one in the nervous system, the other in the mind. (42)

31. An example of simultaneous association would be "cause and effect" association. (41)

32. Associationistic doctrine was basic to both learning behaviorists theory and to psychoanalytic theory. (42)

33. "Mental chemistry" is a theory of association were simple ideas form complex ideas which were more Gestalt like. (54, 43)

34. Contiguity is the connection between two elements (simple ideas) at either the same time or the same place. (43)

35. John Stuart Mill was a brilliant theorist of connectionistic psychology. (43)

36. The French philosophers were both materialistic and empiricistic. (44)

37. Empiricism refers to the theory that knowledge comes from sensations and experience rather than from intuition, genetics, or from God.




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