Unit 2
Early Philosophy and Medicine


Remember when taking this true false test that all the answers are important; even the false ones. When you finish and score yourself,. go back and try and change the false statements to true. That will yield an important concept in the unit. You may be able to change many of the false statements two ways -- by changing the subject and then changing the predicate of the sentence.

1. Psychology originated primarily from medicine and education. (l)
2. Applied psychology was originally called "natural philosophy." (3)
3. Modern man is a state of mind rather than a period in history. (3)
4. Astronomy and hypnotism grew out of alchemy. (5)
5. Mesmerism (hypnotism) assumed that physical forces affected mental states. (5)
6. The doctrine of transmutation of elements refers to the assumption that one element or energy can be changed into another one. (5).
7. Monism is the assumption that there is basically one reality or irreducible element or substance in the world. (13)
8. One who believes that everything is basically mental, that even stones are composed of mind, is a dualist. (13)
9. Democritus and Epicurus were both similar because they believed that all matter was made up of very small spirits which permeated the universe. (13)
10. The antinaturalists believed that certain phenomena did not have a rational explanation, that many things were unique, inexplicable, and not really "real." (14)
11. The theory of effluxes, proposed by Empedocles, attempted to explain how objects out there could somehow get inside the head. (16)
12. Platonic philosophy, similar to that of Behaviorism today, subordinated man to a minor position in the nature of things. (21)
13. Plato's philosophy is known as "idealism" because he maintained that the universe was composed primarily of ideas and abstractions.
14. Aristotle is considered to be the father of psychology because he was the first to suggest that the mind was a product of the environment and that information could be obtained by way of observation. (21)
15. Galen was the foremost philosopher in the Mediterranean area. (24)
16. The concepts of pneuma or spirits were early attempts to explain the circulatory system. (25
17. Galen's theory was an elaborate transformation of energy (or elements) theory. (25)
18. As an authority in medicine and physiology, Galen was soon supplanted by scientists in the seventeenth century. (25)
19. St. Augustine introduced one of the first cognitive theories of behavior. (26)
20. Augstinian "will" burst onto eighteenth century America in the Great Awakening and lasted until replaced by more cognitive theories in the nineteenth century. (26)
21. Aquinas attempted a compromise between Catholic dogma and Platonic philosophy. (27)
22. One of the major questions facing man has been how to account for the fact that detached physical objects somehow get transformed into sensations of color, sound, and eventually into images and ideas which can be called up at will. (27)



Contents Unit 2

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