UNIT 8

GLOSSARY

AREA SAMPLING -- sampling technique used in opinion polling. First, an area is divided into smaller geographical units. Then, several of these units are chosen. From these units, dwellings are randomly selected for the sample.

ATTITUDE -- beliefs and emotions concerning a particular object which predispose the individual to respond to the object in certain ways.

ATTITUDE SCALE -- series of statements concerning a particular topic, designed to measure the attitude of an individual toward that topic.

AUTOKINETIC PHENOMENON -- perceptual phenomenon in which a stationary light n an otherwise totally dark room appears to move.

CIRCL LAR REACTION -- a type of mutual stimulation that occurs in crowds when the agitated behavior of one person is a stimulus which intensifies the agitated behavior of another.

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE -- the individual perceives an inconsistency between his behavior and his thinking. He attempts to change his attitudes to match his behavior

COLLECTIVE EXCITEMENT -- individuals in a crowd become more agitated and focus attention on the excited behavior of others.

DEVIANT BEHAVIOR -- any behavior that does not conform to a social norm.

DEVIANT SUBCULTURE -- a culture within the larger society that subscribes to norms which are in direct opposition to those of the larger society.

FIXED-ALTERNATIVE QUESTION -- type of question often used in publicopinion polls. The respondent has a fixed number of responses he can give to the question.

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MILLING -- people walking at random, near and around each other in a crowd.

NORMS -- society's expectations or rules specifying proper and improper behavior.

OPEN-ENDED QUESTION -- type of question sometimes used in publicopinion polls. The question is phrased in such a way that the respondent is allowed to give his answer in his own words.

POSITION -- a label describing the place of a person relative to others in the society (wife, daughter, etc.).

PRIMACY EFFECT -- the tendency for first impressions to dominate future perceptions.

PRIMARY GROUP -- a small group, such as a family or gang, characterized by close association and group loyalty.

PROBABILITY SAMPLING -- sampling technique used in opinion polling. Names are arranged randomly and the pollster selects every nth name for his sample.

QUOTA SAMPLING -- sampling technique used in opinion polling. The interviewer obtains responses from the same proportions of certain social categories that appear in the total population.

ROLE -- the behavioral expectations society apaches to given positions.

SOCIAL CONTAGION -- members of a crowd experience a lowering of social resistance and self-consciousness and a heightened level of suggestibility.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY -- that branch of psychology which is concerned with social behavior, particularly interaction within and among groups.

STEREOTYPE -- a preconceived notion about some aspect of a particular person or social group, usually oversimplified and biased.