UNIT 4

GLOSSARY

ANTICIPATION METHOD -- as an item is presented the subject guesses the next. This process continues until he can repeat a whole list without prompting

CREATIVE THINKING -- productive thinking with unusual or original results.

DEDUCTIVE THINKING -- arriving at examples of a principle given the general principle

DISTRIBUTED PRACTICE -- learning with frequent, interspersed rest preiods.

FEEDBACK -- information given to the organism as to the effects of his behavior.

FLOW-CHART -- a display technique used to indicate a sequence of dis- and responses.

FORGETTING -- loss of retention; extinction of what has been learned.

FORMAL DISCIPLINE -- the theory that such courses as Latin had a person to think logically.

FORMAL SIMILARITY -- elements which have some physical properties in common, for example, color, size, shape, etc.

FUNCTIONAL FIXITY -- the tendency to use an object only for its usually defined function

HEURISTIC -- a generalized guiding behavior used in solving problems.

INCIDENTAL LEARNING--learning accidentally; without a direct attempt.

INDUCTIVE LEARNING -- building concepts by association generalization and discrimination

MASSED PRACTICE -- learning in which an individual works continually until the task is complete.

MAZE -- a device used in experimental learning, that has blind alleys and a correct path. It presents the subject with the task of learning the path through without making any errors.

MEANINGFULNESS -- familiarity; usually derived from some measure of number and kind of associations one can make to a specific item.

MEDIATOR -- a response made to a stimulus which in turn has associative properties for subsequent respondings.

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MEMORY -- retention of what has been reamed.

MNEMONIC -- a mental device used to assist memory (as in "Thirty days hath September'').

MOTIVATED FORGETTING -- repression; the forgetting of unpleasant memories.

NEGATIVE TRANSFER -- learning of one task inhibits ts learning of another.

NONSENSE SYLLABLE -- An item used in rote experiments, usually a three-letter word arranged in a consonant-vowel-consonant pattern The combination of letters must not form a word in familiar language

OVERLEARNING -- additional practice after mastery b achieved.

PAIRED-ASSOCIATE LEARNING -- two items are learned as a pair so that when one is presented the other is recalled.

POSITIVE TRANSFER -- learning of one task facilitates learning of another

PROACTIVE INHIBITION -- something learned previously interferes with present learning or recall.

RECALL -- retrieval of past experiences or remembering an item with few cues.

RECOGNITION -- perceiving an item as being familiar

RELEARNING -- regaining a skill that was totally or partially lost

RETENTION -- remembering; holding on to what is learned so that it can be used later.

RETROACTIVE INHIBITION -- partial or complete forgetting due to a recent event or learning.

SERIAL LEARNING -- one response becomes or brings about the next stimulus, as in reciting a poem.

SERIAL POSITION -- the position of an item within a series of items to be learned.

SET -- a tendency to respond similarly to a new situation in the way one responded in another situation.

SHORT-TERM MEMORY -- memory that has a limited storage capacity and a short duration.

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