Progress Check 1

1. unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response; UCS, UCR
2. a. conditioned stimulus; CS
b. unconditioned stimulus; UCS
c. unconditioned response; UCR
3. threshold

4. the period of time that elapses between the presentation of a stimulus and the occurrence of a response
5. the set of operations by which a previously conditioned response is eliminated 6. spontaneous recovery (the dog will again salivate to the tone
7. stimulus generalization
8. discrimination

Progress Check 2

1. a,c
2. a. food
b. bell
c. salivation
d. salivation
3. Threshold is the minimum intensity or magnitude of a stimulus mat will elicit a response.
4. latency
5. After a response is extinguished, and a rest period, the conditioned stimulus will again produce the conditioned response.
6. The dog will salivate; the CR will occur.
7. By getting the dog to salivate to the 100-beat, but not the 80- beat metronome, through the use of discrimination training procedures.

Progress Check 1

1. anything that increases the frequency of the response it follows
2. He is allowed to get used to the box and tamed by frequent handling. He is also deprived of food or water for a time.
3. In reflex conditioning the animal is restrained. In operant condi. tioning he is free to roam about the environment.
4. shaping.
5. Reinforce the rat when he approaches the bar, then reinforce closer approaches to it. Eventually he will be reinforced for touching the bar and finally for pressing it.
6. by never reinforcing the response
7. discriminative stimulus
8. First condition the rat to press the bar for a reinforcer. Then set up some discriminative stimulus for bar pressing. Then make the appearance of the discriminative stimulus contingent on pulling a chain.
9. superstitious conditioning; non-contingent reinforcement.


Progress Check 2

1. reinforcer
2. b,c
3. classical conditioning (reflex, respondent, or Pavlovian)
4. Reinforce successively closer approximations to the bar pressing behavior; shape bar-pressing.
5. a,b,c,d
6. by never reinforcing the behavior he is trying to extinguish
7. by consistently reinforcing bar pressing in the presence of the light and extinguishing (never reinforcing) the behavior when the light is not on
8. noncontingent reinforcement

Progress Check 1

1. d
2. A variable interval schedule.
3. fixed ratio
4. intermittent
5. The animal will stop responding; ratio strain develops.
6. A fixed ratio schedule; seven responses are required for reinforcement to occur.
7. cumulative record

Progress Check 2

1. a. continuous, and
b. intermittent
2. He has a very low rate of response just after a reinforcement, and responds faster and faster as the time of reinforcement approaches.
3. The output of a cumulative recorder; a record of responses plotted against time.
4. a
5. variable
6. continuous
7. variable interval schedule

MODULE 4 Progress
Check 1

1. A response which terminates an aversive stimulus.
2. A response to a previously neutral stimulus which avoids an aversive stimulus.
3. a
4. b
5. aversive stimulus
6. Control by positive reinforcement contingencies.

Progress Check 2

1. The withdrawal of an aversive stimulus contingent upon a response.
2. escape conditioning
3. avoidance conditioning
4. d
5. a, c
6. difficult

Progress Check 1

1. c
2. the shaping of unlearned reflexes
3. so that skeletal muscles would.not affect their reflex shaping experiment
4. c,
5. The porpoises were reinforced only when they emitted behavior that had not previously been reinforced.

Progress Check 2

1. 1) b 2) a 3) c
2. The rats were paralyzed, then kept alive with artificial respiration.
3. b
4. c
5. b,c

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