ACQUISITION STAGE -- the part of a learning experiment in which a subject is acquiring a new response.
BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION -- a distribution that has two points along the score scale containing more cases than other points along the scale.
CONTROL GROUP -- a group set up with a constant independent variable to insure that changes in the dependent variable are due to changes in the independent variable.
CORRELATION -- the relationship between two sets of scores. Correlation coefficients range from -- 1 for a perfect negative relationship to + 1 for a perfect positive relationship.
DEPENDENT VARIABLE -- a variable that depends on the independent variable; the measured response in an experiment.
DISCRIMINATION LEARNING -- choosing a stimulus to which to respond based on prior differential reinforcement.
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD -- a method in which the researcher manipulates the independent variable and measures changes in the dependent variable, holding all other variables constant.
EXTINCTION -- the procedure of consistently not reinforcing a learned response, leading to a decrease in this response.
EXTROVERSION -- a personality trait characterized by sociable and outgoing behavior.
FLAT-RECTANGULAR DISTRIBUTION -- scores that are evenly distributed along the score scale.
FREQUENCY POLYGON -- a graph in which frequencies are represented by points and the points are connected by a line.
HALO EFFECT -- the influence of prior knowledge about an individual.
HAWTHORNE EFFECT -- a general improvement in performance which occurs when people receive special attention.
HYPOTHESIS -- a statement of expected results which open precedes an experiment and determines experimental design.
HYPOTHESIS MYOPIA -- a situation in which preconceived ide'as get in the way of discover,.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE -- a variable manipulated by the experimenter.
INTELLIGENCE -- what is measured by intelligence tests.
INTERVAL SCALE -- a measurement scale that has equal intervals and no true zero.
J-CURVE -- a skewed distribution with most cases falling at the lowest values.
LATENCY OF RESPONSE -- the time interval between the onset of a stimulus and the occurrence of a response. Response latency is sometimes used to measure the course of learning.
MEAN -- a measure of central tendency; the arithmetical average.
I MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY -- a single value along the score scale that represents the center of a distribution The mean, median, and mode are the most common measures of central tendency.
MEASURE OF DISPERSION -- a value representing the spread or variability of scores within a distribution.
MEDIAN -- a measure of central tendency; the midpoint in a distribution, halfway between the lowest and the highest scores.
MODE -- a measure of central tendency; the value that occurs most ohen.
NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION -- observing and recording events.
NOMINAL SCALE -- a measurement scale used for classifying objects into groups.
NORMAL CURVE -- bell-shaped frequency come.
NULL HYPOTHESIS -- the assertion that there is no difference between groups or no experimental effect.
OPERANT LEVEL -- the base rate of response in a neutral (neither rewarding or punishing) situation.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION -- a definition of a concept in terms of what we do when investigating the concept; e.g., motivation may be operationally defined as 23 hours of food deprivation.
ORDINAL SCALE -- a measurement scale used to classify objects in terms of order or rank.
POPULATION -- the total group from which a sample is drawn.
PSYCHOLOGY -- the science of behavior.
RANDOM SAMPLING -- a method of sampling in which all elements of the population have an equal chance of being included in the sample.
RANGE -- a measure of variation; the difference between highest and low est scores.
RATIO SCALE -- a measurement scale that has equal internals and true zero point.
RESPONSE DIFFERENTIATION LEARNING -- choosing a response or a way of responding based on prior differential reinforcement.
SAMPLE -- a subset selected from a population.
SAMPLING ERROR -- bias resulting from sampling procedures that do not provide for random selection from a population.
SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY -- a hypothesis that becomes true because we act as though it is already true.
SKEWED DISTRIBUTION -- a distribution that is not symmetrical about its center.
STANDARD DEVIATION -- a measure of variation; the average squared deviation from the mean.
THEORY -- a set of constructs that explains several related events.
TRAIT -- a measurable and reasonably stable characteristic of personality.
TRIAL -- a unit of practice in learning experiments during which a subject encounters a specific stimulus situation.
TYPE I ERROR -- rejecting a true hypothesis.
TYPE 11 ERROR -- accepting a false hypothesis.
UNIT NORMAL CURVE (UND) -- a beli-shaped frequency curve with a mean of 0.00 and a standard deviation of 1.00.
Unit 13 Table of Contents