UNIT 12

GLOSSARY

ANAL STAGE - the second stage of psychosexual development during which the child's interest centers around anal activity.

ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY - the theoretical approach to personality developed by Jung.

ARCHETYPE - according to Jung, the collective unconscious consists of inherited (remembered) predispositions and ideas. Archetypes are universai racial memories about specific ideas such as death, love, sexuality, and parenthood.

BEHAVIOR THERAPY - attempts to change behavior by using applications of learning theory - chiefly conditioning and extinction.

CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY - developed by Carl Rogers, this approach to therapy emphasizes a nondirective role for the therapist. The patient finds his own solutions to problems, with the therapist acting as a caring, self-revealing catalyst.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS - in Jung's theory, this aspect of the mind contains the total experience of man as a species, his evolutionary ancestry, and species memory. This part of man's mind is universal.

CONSCIOUS MIND - the conscious contents of the mind consist of those things one is aware of at a particular moment.

DESENSITIZATION - a behavior therapy technique for reducing anxiety or stress by inducing physical relaxation and then presenting feared stimuli. This behavior modification technique was first introduced by Jacobsen.

EGO - according to Freud, the ego is that part of the personality which we most often think of as the self. This part of the personality functions to resolve conflict between the id and the superego.

EXPRESSIVE THERAPIES - therapeutic techniques that owe much to psychoanalytic theory. Personal growth is encouraged by fostering selfexpression in a relatively nonthreatening situation.

EXTROVERSION - according to Jung, the tendency to be outwardly expressive, engaging in social activities. The extrovert is oriented toward the external world of other people and things.

FREE ASSOCIATION - a technique of therapy developed by Freud in which an individual allows thoughts or words to occur spontaneously.

GENITAL STAGE - according to Freudian theory, the fifth stage of psychosexuai development, which corresponds to puberty. In this stage the individual has attained maturity.

GESTALT THERAPY - developed by Frederick Perls, this approach focuses on the here and now. Gestalt therapists pay attention to the nonverbal aspects of the patient's behavior for example, how he sits, his gestures, and so on. Emphasis is placed on increased awareness, on spontaneity, and on responsibility for one's own actions.

HALO EFFECT - refers to the carryover effect that rating one personality characteristic might have on the rating of others.

ID according to Freud, the id is that part of the personality consisting of primitive instincts of sexuality and aggression. The id seeks immediate gratification of its needs.

INTROVERSION - according to Jung, a tendency to be inwardly reflective rather than overtly expressive. The introvert is oriented toward his inner world.

LATENCY STAGE - a stage of psychosexual development in which there is an apparent lack of sexual interest. This is the fourth psychosexual stage.

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LIBIDINAL TYPES - a classification of personality types used by Freud. He classes people as erotic, obsessional, or narcissistic.

MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI) - the most widely used objective test, used for evaluating personality in terms of psychiatric categories.

OEDIPUS COMPLEX - according to Freud, this complex appears during the phallic stage. It consists of sexual attraction to the parent of the opposite sex and hostility for the parent of the same sex.

ORAL STAGE - in psychoanalytic theory, the first stage of psychosexual development. In this stage most pleasure is received through stimulation of the mouth and lips in nursing and sucking

PERSONAL UNCONSCIOUS - in Jung's theory of personality, the personal unconscious refers to memories of experiences which are not conscious but are readily accessible to consciousness. It is similar to Freud's preconscious mind.

PERSONALITY TRAIT - a characteristic of an individual's personality, such as "loving, " "honest," "hater ul," "even tempered. "

PHALLIC STAGE - the third stage of psychosexual development, during which the child's interest centers around the sex organs.

PRECONSCIOUS EXPERIENCES - those experiences of which we are barely aware, such as tactile impressions from clothing, or observations about others which we do not realize we have made.

PSYCHOANALYSIS - a system of therapy developed by Freud. Emphasis is placed on making the unconscious determinants of behavior conscious, which is accomplished through free association.

REPRESSION - unconsciously excluding unpleasant thoughts from awareness; a primary defense mechanism.

RESISTANCE - in psychoanalytic theory, refers to attempts on the part of the individual to prevent repressed thoughts from coming to consciousness.

RORSCHACH TEST - a standardized series of inkblots used as a projective personality test.

SOMATOTYPES - a classification of bodily types, developed by Sheldon.

SUPEREGO - according to Freud, this part of the personality provides internal controls and standards which attempt to keep the needs of the id in check. It is synonymous with conscience.

THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST (TAT) - a projective personality test in which the subject is asked to make up stories about a series of pictures. The themes of his stories give an indication of his basic personality structure.

TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS - developed by Eric Berne, this theory of personality views the self as divided into parent, adult, and child. Patterns of interaction between people are called games.

TRANSFERENCE - in psychoanalysis, refers to the patient's experiencing feelings for his analyst which he has DreviOuSiy experienced toward other significant figures in his life.

TRAUMA - (plural: traumata) injury.

UNCONSCIOUS MIND - memories which are recalled with great difficulty if at all; memories below the level of awareness.

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