Other Theories of Personality
Freud's psychoanalytic theory was the earliest well-defined theory of personality. Within a short time he had many followers. Some of these disagreed with Freud's theoretical emphases and developed modifications of psychoanalytic theory. Jung and Adler, who both disagreed with Freud's sexual emphasis, developed very influential theories of personality. In recent years, a socially oriented psychologist, Erich Fromm, has developed a new theory of personality, as have some learning theorists. In this module, we shall sample a few of the many theories of personality in existence today.
As you read the text, try to answer the following questions.
CARL GUSTAV JUNG: ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Carl Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist who became interested in Freud's psychoanalysis around the turn of the century. In 1907, Jung visited Freud in Vienna and a close friendship between the two men was formed. It lasted until 1914 when personal and theoretical frictions caused the association to break up.
Generally speaking, Jung's theories about personality and behavior are much less empirical and mechanistic than Freud's. Both men relied heavily upon the notion of unconscious determinants of behavior, but to Jung the unconscious covered a much more extensive territory. Freud's unconscious signified only a personal unconscious, a region of personality containing material as a result of experiences of the individual himself. Beneath the personal unconscious is the collective unconscious, an accumulation of racial memories of universal experiences such as birth, death, sexuality, and parenthood. The memories that are inherited are archetypes, symbolic tendencies to respond in certain ways in certain situations. Thus, Freud interprets early mother-child relationships as determined by the sexual experiences of the individuals involved. Jung, on the other hand, sees mother- child relationships as an archetypal situation, a group of inherited tendencies that have been experienced by human beings throughout the existence of the species.
Analytical psychology interprets feelings and behavior in terms of both an individual and racial unconscious
Jung's method of investigation differed radically from Freud's essentially clinical method and his theories are based mainly on historical, artistic, and occult evidence. His writings are filled with references to ancient literary works which reflect all of the common archetypes of the collective unconscious.
Jung emphasizes four archetypes.
1. Persona -- The picture of the individual presented to society.
2. Anima (in men), animus (in women) -- Representing areas of female masculinity and male femininity.
3. Shadow -- Animal instincts reminiscent of non-human ancestors.
4. Self -- An archetype which holds the entire personality system together.
Behavior is explained as a dominance of one function relative to others
Jung also developed a system of character types consisting of functions and attitudes.. Psychological functions are classified into thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting. The thinking man is an intellectual; he tries to understand the nature of the world and of himself. The feeling man is emotional; he values things according to subjective experiences. The sensing man is a perceiver; he looks for concrete facts and information about the world. The intuiting man is a mystic; he tries to discover the essence of the world by going beyond facts or feelings. Everyone, according to Jung, is a mixture of these functions, but the personality of an individual is determined by the function that is predominant.
Attitudes are classified as introversion and extroversion. The introvert is oriented toward his inner, subjective world. The extrovert is oriented toward the external, objective world.
Jungian therapy stresses the patient's study and acceptance of the archetypes within himself. Only when the first three archetypes are fully integrated can the self begin to be explored and integrated. The self strives for completeness. Jungian technique is similar to Freudian in that therapy is on a one-to-one basis, and emphasis is placed on revealing unknown motivations of behavior.
ALFRED ADLER: INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY
Alfred Adler was a Viennese physician who became interested in psychoanalysis around 1902. He remained with Freud until 1910 when theoretical disagreements forced a split. Adler resisted what he considered Freud's mechanistic, structural approach to human personality. The rival school of psychology that he set up is called individual psychology an attempt to study the whole individual rather than fragments of personality systems.
Individual psychology interprets behavior in terms of a desire for pouter in the social order
Adler's personality theories Reemphasized sexual relationships and unconscious repression and emphasized power relationships. He interpreted Freud's Oedipal syndrome to be the result of a relationship between a helpless child and an all powerful mother rather than as an expression of infant sexuality. According to Adler, the initial inferiority of all human infants results in a will to power that is the primary motivating force for all human behavior.
Adler's system emphasizes social relationships rather than biological instincts. The variable of position in the family (oldest child, middle child, youngest child) helps to determine how an individual responds to his environment because birth order dictates the individuals power relationships within the family.
The school of individual psychology made therapy a shorter process. Like Jungian therapy, it dispensed with many of the Freudian therapeutic practices.
LEARNING THEORY AND PERSONALITY
John Dollard and Neal Miller were influenced both by Freud's ideas and by Clark Hull's work in learning theory. Dollard and Miller tried to blend psychoanalytic thinking with the results of experimental work in behavior. Their emphasis, in contrast to Freud~s, is on the reinforcement histories of acquired habits rather than on inborn tendencies. Aggressive behavior in an adult is viewed as a consequence of his reinforcement history. The prevalence of conflicts about sex is a result of anxiety generated by punishment associated with children's sexual responses. '`The sight of a child masturbating evokes intense anxiety in the adults of our culture and they promptly apply sanctions ... the result is to set up in the child the same sex- anxiety conflict which the adults have" (Dollard and Miller, 1950).
A SOCIALLY ORIENTED THEORY
Behaviorally oriented psychologists view personality traits as clusters of behaviors. Freud considered an Individual's system of traits to be motives underlying and explaining behavior. Erich Fromm emphasizes cultural conditioning. He believes "that the key problem of psychology is that of the specific kind of relatedness of the individual towards the world, and not that of the satisfaction or frustration of this or that instinctual need per se " (Fromm, 1941 )
His basic thesis is that as man gains freedom, he feels increasingly alone. Freedom then becomes a negative condition from which man tries to escape by such means as war and totalitarianism.
Fromm agrees with Freud about the power of the unconscious in determining behavior. He nevertheless stresses man's potential for growth. He views the human dilemma as the conflict between man's feelings of isolation from his fellow man and his tendency to overcome this alienation by submitting to authority. To overcome this conflict Fromm believes it is necessary to form a better society. The present society is one in which personality is a marketable commodity. We need a society in which human beings relate to each other lovingly rather than through conformity, or competition.
Now test yourself without looking back.
1. In Jung's theory of personality, each of us has racial memories called the________________________________________________
2. The concept of introversion was developed by________________________________________
3. In Adler~s theory of individual psychology, behavior is governed by:
a. the will to power.
b. sexual drives.
d. biological instincts.
4. In learning theories of personality, adult behavior is explained in terms of:
a. unconscious motivations.
b. reinforcement history.
c. sexual drives.
d. social conformity.
1 ) Jung ______________________
4) Dollard and Miller
a. Socially oriented
c. The will to power
d. Learning theory
e. The collective unconscious
f. The escape from freedom
ANSWER KEY PAGE 116
4 OR MORE CORRECT ~ PAGE 89
FEWER THAN 4 CORRECT PAGE 85
|The Mind According to Jung's Analytical Theory|
Conscious -- the ego
Personal unconscious -- easily accessible, preconscious
Collective unconscious -- contains universal experience of man
The components of the collective unconscious are archetypes. Archetypes are the:
a. inborn instinctual drives.
b. universal racial memories.
c. preconscious contents.
d. sexual drives.
According to Jung, behavior is governed by the inborn archetypes. The most important division of the mind, therefore, is the
Jung classified psychological functions into thinking, sensing, feeling,superiority. and intuiting. Write the appropriate function after each of the following character types.
Jung classified attitudes as showing introversion and extroversion. Match the following personality characteristics with the correct attitude.
1 ) Introversion __________
2) Extroversion ___________
a. Orientation toward the inner world
b.Orientation toward the externai world
c. Subjective judgments
d. Objective judgments
Jung's theory of personality is called___________________________________________________1
Adler felt that behavior was governed by social urges, the most
important of which was the will to power. Adler:
a. accepted Freud's inborn instinctual drives.
b. rejected Jung's racial archetypes.
c. felt that behavior was governed by sexual urges.
d. felt that most behavior was governed by a striving for
Adler's theory of personality is called:
a. psychoanalytic psychology.
b. analytical psychology.
c. individual psychology.
7 analytical psychology
(or analytical theory)
2. a. intuiting
3 1) a, c
6) b, d
4 collective unconscious
5 instinctual drives
6 b, d
Erich Fromm is a socially oriented theorist. He views man as in a
conflict between the isolation associated with freedom and the
tendency to submit to authority. He believes this conflict can be
a. forming a psychoanalytic theory of personality.
b. forming a better society.
c. releasing repressed sexual urges.
Compared to other theories, Erich Mommas theory of personality emphasizes________________________________________________________________________5
What conditions did Fromm suggest cause people to become lonely and anxious?
Dollard and Miller related learning theory and personality. They felt
behavior could be explained by examining reinforcement histories.
Thus Dollard and Miller:
a. agreed with Freud on the basic sexual drives controlling behavior.
b. rejected inborn archetypes as a cause of behavior.
c. rejected the striving for superiority as a basic cause of behavior.
According to the learning theory of personality, neurotic behavior in an adult is due to his___________________________________________8
Learning theory and psychoanalysis were combined into a theory of personality by:
c. Dollard and Miller.
Alfred Adler developed individual psychology to deal with personality. He felt that behavior was governed by social urges, especially the will to power. Which of the following explains the primary urge that governs behavior, according to Adler?
a. The need to dominate others
b. A racial archetype
c. An inborn drive
d. A striving for superiority
NOW TAKE PROGRESS CHECK 2
1 b, c
2 inborn archetypes
3 a, d
4 As man gains freedom, he feels alone and anxious.
5 social factors
8 reinforcement history
1. According to whose theory of personality do archetypes govern behavior?__________________________________________
2. The striving for superiority is the driving force motivating behavior according to whose theory?________________________________________________
3. Forming a better society is an important part of the personality theory of which theorist?_______________________________
4. Name the psychologist(s) associated with each theoretical notion.
a. The initial inferiority of all human beings causes a need for superiority and domination that becomes the primary driving force in the personality._________________________
Beneath the personal unconscious there is an accumulation of memories of universal experiences such as birth, death, sexuality, and parenthood.________________________
c. The key problem in psychology is that of the specific kind of relatedness of each individual to society.____________________________
d. Acquired habits, rather than inborn tendencies, determine personality._________________________________
e. Inborn instinctive drives generate tension which is reduced to a comfortable level according to the pleasure principle._________________________________
5. Jung developed the concept(s) of:
a. introversion and extroversion.
d. thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting as fundamental psychological functions. e. the will to power.
ANSWER KEY PAGE 117
4 OR MORE CORRECT PAGE 89
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