4. What does Professor Richard Herrnstein call his predicted stratified society where the more intelligent form the upper classes and the less intelligent form the lowest social classes?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

Now check your answers with the ANSWER KEY
6 0R MORE CORRECT Go to Module 3


We explored the heredity vs. environment question in this unit partly to show how psychological findings and their interpretations are relevant to social issues. Most scientists agree that on the average certain minority groups score lower on IQ tests but they do not agree that these data prove that such groups are intellectually inferior because of their heredity.

Several scientists have written articles about their interpretations of the data relevant to the heredity-environment issue. Dr. Richard Herrnstein has even sketched out what he believes society will be like in the future. In a meritocracy, the intellectually gifted will rise to the top of the ladder while the less intelligent will cluster at the bottom. Which of these would be true in such a society?
a. There would be great equality of opportunity to all people regardless of their intellectual abilities.
b. People would be deliberately "bred" by the government in order to produce future generations with superior intellectual abilities.
A national system would be established to reward everyone for their efforts.
d. None of these need be true.

What did Herrnstein call his future society where the more intelligent reach the top?____________________________________________________________4

As we noted in the text section, Dr. Fotis Kafatos (1970) took the position that a person making an interpretation of a finding which has strong political implications should not be immune from criticism at a political level, and that the scientist cannot hide behind the guise of Academic Freedom. Which of the following statements would Kafatos support?

The three basic arguments related to the issue of heredity vs. environment are:
(1) Hereditary factors are more important than environmental factors.
(2) Environmental factors are more important than hereditary factors.
(3) What ever its effect, we cannot yet influence genetics, but we can do something about the environ- ment

Label the following statements as most logically consistent with number one (1), number two (2), or number three (3), or None (N)

a. Because of the population patterns, the less intelligent will outbreed the more intelligent and thus lower the IQ of society in general.
b. Under some conditions, minority and low-income groups outperform the white, middle class majority.
c. Biofeedback experiments show that people can learn things we never believed possible.
d. The whole argument is a waste of valuable resources.
e. Regardless of the social policies in effect, the same people would always be at the top of the socio- economic ladder.
f. IQ tests are culturally biased.
g. Scientists should be immune from criticism even if their findings have some political overtones.



4 a meritocracy
1 d
2 c
3 a-1; b-2; c-2; d-3; e-1; f-2; 9-N

As we pointed out in Module 1, many covert behaviors can be made public if we use sensitive instruments to detect them. Which of these normally private events can be made public?
a. Heart beat
b. Brain waves
c. Blood pressure
d. All of the above
e. None of the above

____________________________________________________ 2
Recently it has been found that when bodily functions, of which the subject himself is unaware, are made public, the individual may learn through practice to have some voluntary control over them. This process is called biofeedback.

Learning by using biofeedback methods would be involved in which of these?
a. Learning to count by threes
b. Learning to regulate one's own blood pressure
c. Learning to like the taste of black coffee
d. Learning to get along with your little brother

___________________________________________ 5

Until very recently the reports of Hlndu mystics' ability to control such bodily functions as heart rate and respiration were scoffed at by psychologists. This was because It was our belief that reflexive behavior was for the most part impossible to learn to control voluntarily. Which of these are reflexive behaviors that have been brought under voluntary control?
a. Learning to control the bowels
b. Learning to control a car
c. Neither of these


We may summarize the experiment that Dr. Neal Miller and Dr. DiCara performed as follows:
Step 1
Rats were curarized (temporarily paralyzed by the drug, curare).
Step 2
Instruments were attached to ears which detect the amount of blood in each ear.
Step 3
The rats were rewarded when a difference occurred. (6 rats were rewarded for left ear vasodilation and 6 for right ear vasodilation.)
This experiment indicates:
Every rat learned to turn one ear bright pink-the one it was rewarded for changing.
Since the control of this behavior was not a by- product of either heart rate or blood pressure (as these would affect both ears equally) it can only mean that the rats had learned to control the tiny blood vessels in the ears.
a. that all rats were able to learn the same response.
b. that only humans can learn from biofeedback.
c. that some very precise controls can be taught.
d. none of these.

In his research on the control of alpha waves, Joe Kamlya found that:
(1 ) a high alpha state arises when there is a "relaxation
of the mental apparatus." (2) a low alpha state arises with intense concentration.

Here are several commands given to subjects. Predict what alpha state would most likely be produced.
a. concentrate on a visual Image.
b. relax.
c. make your mind a blank.
d. Imagine the face of a loved one.
e. sort of dribble along.

___________________________________________________ 3

2 d
3 a-low; b-high; c-high; d-low;e-high
4 a, c
5 b
The process by which we regulate the relationship between a behavior and its consequences is called contingency management. Which of the following would be an example of contingency management?
a Eat your peas.
b. Eat your peas, they are good for you.
c. Eat your peas and then you can have dessert.
d. See, Mommy is eating her peas.
_________________________________________________ 4
A teacher or parent who is using methods is generally concerned with what "pay-off" can be arranged. If the contingency manager wants a behavior to increase, he must arrange for positive or rewarding consequences to occur. If he wants the behavior to decrease, he arranges for such consequences to be withheld or even for the introduction of negative consequences.

_______________________________________ 2
There are many contingencies in life. For example, if it rains, the game may be called off; or, you don't go to the show because you don't like the title of the picture. But the contingency manager is most interested in the contingency between a behavior and its con sequences. Which Of these would be considered to be a contingency managed situation?

a If ice cream gets warm, it will melt.
b. If you see Tom, tell him I want him.
c. If I eat my corn, I can have dessert.
d. If they show "Grapes of Wrath" on the late show again, I won't watch it.

__________________________________________________ 5
A therapist using contingency management is usually not very concerned with historical information about the patient, such as what the original causes of a behavior problem are. Read the following case history.
Tom is 9 years old. He ''s almost totally deaf and has been confined to a state hospital for five years. His early life was very traumatic. His alcoholic step-father, whom he hated, beat him severely. Tom is a "hand-biter," that is, he compulsively bites his hand so severely that he causes blood to flow. When this happens the nurses, alarmed, rush to touch him and take care of him.

What facts in his story would the contingency manager be most interested in?
a He hated his father.
b. He had an unhappy home life.
c. Attention is a consequence of biting his hand.
d. None of these.
The use of the unit tests in this course is an example of contingency management. What is the contingency?
a If you pass you go on to the next unit.
b. If you do
not pass the first time you may try again.
d. You can
go at your own pace.
d. Every unit test is graded.

1 c
2 a+,b-,c-,d+,e+
3 a
4 c
5 c


1.Which is true of learning from biofeedback?
a. Only lower animals can be taught to learn from biofeedback methods.
b. It can be used to teach very precise behaviors.
c. both.
d. neither.

2. Which is true about the heredity vs. environment controversy?
a. there is general agreement about the data.
b. Those who favor heredity disallow everything except introspective evidence.
c. both
d. neither

4. When people have learned to control their alpha waves, they frequently report that in order to shut them off they
a. must concentrate on some visual image.
b. relax and sort of drift along.
c. both.
d. neither.

5. A key issue in the presentation of the heredity vs. environment question was the impact of the psychologists' conclusions on social policy. From this discussion you might conclude that:
a. scientific statements about race, heredity, and IQ are free from any political and social implications.
b. many psychologists are becoming increasingly concerned about the possible misuse of their findings.
c. both.
d. neither.

6. Which of these arguments is frequently used to support the position that further study of the heredity vs. environment question is largely a waste of effort?
a. Minority children suffer from impoverished environments.
b. IQ tests are culturally biased.
c. both of these.
d. neither of these.

7. A contingency manager might suggest that a student's bad behavior in the classroom was being maintained by:
a. the attention he gets for displaying such behavior.
b. what the student's home life is like.
c. his feelings about his mother.
d. all of the above.

8. Suppose you wanted to learn to reduce the temperature in the fingers of your right hand. Which of the following conditions would have to exist?
a. Someone would have to tell you exactly what to think about.
b. You would have to understand the emotional condition associated with low
temperatures in that area.
c. You would have to be able to reduce your alpha wave frequency.
d. You would have to know instantly, by some visual or audible signal, every time a temperature change occurred.

Check the answers in the ANSWER KEY
7 OR MORE CORRECTGo to Module 3