GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY

Major concepts in the course

These are the major concepts in the course. There are others. But these constitute at least 90% or more of the important material. The questions on the final will ask you to apply these concepts,. to compare them, to identify examples.

Do not just memorize the definitions of these concepts. Use the list as a check sheet. Go back and reread those sections with which you are unfamiliar. There are lots of pairs of concepts. It is especially important to know the distinctions between the various pairs of concepts which are easily confused (e.g., dependent vs. independent; fixed vs. variable; dominant vs. recessive; inverval vs. ratio; inductive vs. deductive; sympathetic vs. parasympathetic; rods vs. cones; delusions vs. hallucinations, etc.)

One way to review would be to try writing out (without looking) the concepts and the similarities and differences between pairs. Always prepare for a multiple choice test as if it were going to be an essay exam.

Good luck.

UNIT 1 - PSYCHOLOGY: A Science and Technology
Covert-overt
dependent-independent variable
definition of psychology
Experimental-naturalistic methods
Horizontal - vertical axis
Cross-cultural; longitudinal
Nature-nurture
Alpha state
Contingency management


UNIT 2 - HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Identical-fraternal twins
Direction of motor development
cooperative-parallel play
Cross sectional-longitudinal
Imprinting
Sensori-motor vs. formal operations
Patellar, Babinski, Darwinian reflexes
Dominant vs. recessive genes
Genes-chromosomes
Cephalocaudal-vs. proximaldistal
Piaget stages -- sensori, pre-operational, concrete, formal

UNIT 3 - NATURE OF LEARNING

Conditioned -unconditioned
Escape vs. avoidance conditioning
Aversive stimulus vs. punishment
positive - negative reinforcement
Classical vs. operant conditioning .
Interval vs. ratio schedules
Fixed vs. variable
Latency
Superstitious conditioning
Discrimination vs. generalization
Shaping
Errorless discrimination training
Threshold
Creativity
Errorless discrimination training
Chaining

UNIT 4 - ACQUISTION AND RETENTION

Proactive-retroactive inhibition
Theories of learning (forgetting)
Overlearning, spaced, massed
Serial learning; mediating
Formal similarity
Inductive vs. deductive thinking
Behavioral vs. cognitive
Positive-negative transfer
Serial position effect
Response produced cues
Recall, recognition, relearning
Set; learning to learn
Functional fixity
Formal disciplines
Transfer

UNIT 5 - PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

Structure of neuron
Synapse
Efferent-afferent
Sympathetic-parasympathetic
Somesthetic - proprioceptive
Action-excitatory potential
Homeostasis
Sensory-effector
Adrenal medulla
Pituitary - adrenal cortex
Cerebellum - cerebrum
Parietal - frontal lobes - temporal
Acetylcholine
All-or-none; nondecremental
RAS
Reflex arc
Endocrine - exocrine

UNIT 6 - SENSATION AND PERCEPTION
Outer, middle, inner ear
Wave frequency and amplitude
Traveling-wave -- Place theory
Phase difference ; relative complexity
Effectors - receptors
Olfactory
Lens, retina
rods - cones
optic chiasma
Phi phenomenon
Interposition, aerial perspective,
Retinal disparity
Convergence - accomodation
Closure - similarity
Shape - size constancy
Visceral senses
Kinesthesis
Taste

UNIT 7 - MEASUREMENT AND MEANING

Mean Median, Mode
Decline of intelligence
Validity vs. reliability
Binet - Terman
IQ
Negative correlation
Frequency polygon - scatter plot
Aptitude - Achievement
Intelligence
Nature-nurture issue
Predictive validity
Thurstone
Co-twin; cross sectional studies
Factor analysis
AGCT

UNIT 8 - BEHAVIOR IN GROUPS

Social norms
Fixed-alternative
Scale values of attitude tests
Cognitive dissonance
Probability - quota sampling
Milling, collective excitement
J Curve
Congruity - balance theory
Primacy effects
Authoritarianism
Self protective vs. self expressive
Appetitive behavior
Androgen - Estrogen

UNIT 9 - MOTIVATION AND EMOTION

Suppression - repression
Primary - secondary drives
Septal area
Satiety center
Autonomic nervous system
Positive - negative incentive seeking
General drives
Sympathetic-parasympathetic
Sham rage
Maintaining stimulus constancy
Unconscious motivation

UNIT 10 - BEHAVIOR UNDER STRESS

Approach-approach conflict
Approach-avoidance,
Double approach avoidance
Mutually compatible
Strength of approach and avoidance
Regression - repression
Rationalization - projection
Personal - social frustration
General adaptation syndrome
Tolerance of frustration
Anxiety - fear
Reaction formation
Displaced aggression

UNIT 11 - BEHAVIOR DISORDER

Anxiety disorder (formerly known as neurosis)
Phobias vs. anxiety attacks
Hallucinations - delusions
Obsession - compulsion
Personality disorder
Conversion reaction - hypochrondria
Catatonic - Hebephrenic
Paranoid -
schizophrenia (psychosis)
Sociopathic
Bipolar Mood Disorder (formerly known as Manic-Depressive)

UNIT 12 - PERSONALITY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY

Rorschach
MMPI - TAT
Latent stage
Operant shaping; conditioned avoidance
Systematic desensitization
Trait-type approach
Client-Centered - Psychoanalysis
Gestalt analysis
Oral, anal, genital
Id, ego, superego
Collective unconscious
Freud, Rogers, Fromm, Jung
Transference
Repression, regression, projection, etc.

UNIT 13 - STATISTICS

Nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
Large - small standard deviation
Abscissa - ordinate
Type I and II errors
Null hypothesis
Independent-dependent variable
Skewed distribution
Mean, median, mode
Random - probability sample
Bimodal - normal distribution
Operational definition
Positive - negative correlation