Brookes, Andrew. 1987. "Restoring the Sinuosity of Artificially Straightened Stream

Channels." Environmental Geological Water Science, 10(1): 33-41.

This article looked at how to design meanders from old maps using depressions in

the floodplain as a guide. Trenches were dug in the old meanders so that the

original cross-section could be ascertained. This technology is based on the

assumption that no major land use changes have occurred since channelization.

______. 1988. Channelized Rivers: Perspectives for Environmental Manage-

ment. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This book is a very thorough look at channelization. It defines channelization; its

problems and solutions.

______. 1990. "Restoration and Enhancement of Engineered River Channels:

Some European Experiences." Regulated Rivers: Research and Management, 5:


This article touches on many of the same techniques for restoring meanders as the

1987 article. In addition it addressed the possible relationship between restora-

tion success and a streamís power. To succeed in restoration a streamís power

should be approximately 35 Wm-2.

______. 1992. "Recovery and Restoration of Some Engineered British River

Channels." In River Conservation and Management, ed. P.J. Boon, P. Calow, &

G.E. Petts, 337-352. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

This chapter addresses why streams in England and Wales were straightened and

what some of the consequences have been. It also presents one of the largest

limiting factors facing meander restoration: available land.

Gore, James A., Franklin L. Bryant, & Dina J. Crawford. 1995. "River and Stream

Restoration." In Rehabilitating Damaged Ecosystems, 2nd edition, ed. John

Cairns, Jr., 246-275. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.

This chapter was an overview of restoration and gave small bits of information

for each type.

Hasfurther, Victor R. 1985. "The Use of Meander Parameters in Restoring Hydrologic

Balance to Reclaimed Stream Beds." In The Restoration of Rivers and Streams,

ed. J.A. Gore, 21-40. Boston, Butterworths.

This article was referenced by many of the other sources I used. It seemed to be

authority on the empirical relationships that exist between meander parameters.

It also gave four different methods by which to design meanders.

Iversen, Torben Moth, Brian Kronvang, Bent L. Madsen, Peter Markmann, & Mogens B.

Nielsen. 1993. "Re-establishment of Danish Streams: Restoration and

Maintenance Measures." Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater

Ecosystems, 3: 73-92.

This article gave Danish examples of meander restoration. They stated that

sinuosity in some streams can be increased by appropriate weed cutting. One

cuts the sinuous pattern in the weeds.

Kondolf, G. Mathias. 1996. "A Cross Section of Stream Channel Restoration." Journal

Of Soil and Water Conservation, March-April.

This gives an overview of how restoration projects should be handled by an

Interdisciplinary approach.

Leopold, Luna B., M. Gordon Wolman, & John P. Miller. 1964. Fluvial Processes in

Geomorphology. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company.

The chapter I used presented definitions of meander parameters and how they

interrelate with one another. Many equations are given and evidence is given that

the forces leading to stream meanders are at work in glaciers and the Gulf Stream.

Madsen, Bent Lauge. 1995. Danish Watercourses Ė Ten Years with the New

Watercourse Act. Denmark: Ministry of Environment and Energy.

This book looks at restoration efforts in Denmark during the ten years after their legislature passed a Watercourse Act. The book introduces the basics of streams

and how to restore them. Meander restoration is only one of the techniques


Newbury, Robert. 1995. "Rivers and the Art of Stream Restoration." In Natural and

Anthropogenic Influences in Fluvial Geomorphology. ed. John E. Costa, Andrew

J. Miller, Kenneth W. Potter, and Peter R. Wilcock, 137-149. Washington, DC:

American Geophysical Union.

The author talks about meander empirical equations and how these relations

should be kept in the restoration effort.

Riley, Anne. 1999. Presentation to Geography 810 Seminar at SFSU, April 21.

Rinaldi, Massimo & Peggy A. Johnson. 1997a. "Characterization of Stream Meanders

For Stream Restoration." Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, June.

This article is a very good example of why empirical equations should not be

blindly used to design new meanders. They often can predict that meanders that

are too large for their region should be built. It gives reasons why this happens.

______. 1997b. "Stream Meander Restoration." Journal Of the American Water

Resources Association, 33(4): 855-866.

This article is very similar to the first one, but it seems to go into more detail.

Schumm, Stanley A. 1977. The Fluvial System. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

The chapter I used was his experiments on the effect of different types of sediment loads on meandering. Lighter loads resulted in greater meander wavelengths. In another experiment he determined slope thresholds between different types of channel patterns (straight, meandering, or braided).