**measuring distance**: tape, pacing, time, triangulation, trilateration**triangles**: similar triangles, right triangles & simple trigonometry; know the basic equations and how to use them (yes, you can bring a calculator)**horizontal & vertical distance**: and how to derive them from slope distance & vertical angle; how do you measure tree or other feature height?**angles**: horizontal & vertical.**azimuth**: magnetic & true; magnetic declination; local magnetic anomalies**instruments**: compass, clinometer, transit, level**geographic position**: coordinate systems**basic survey principles**: control, constraining a sketch**triangulation & intersection**: for finding a point by intersecting rays from two known points.**chain-trilateration survey** measuring distance, etc.**compass traverse** method we used equipment, measurements- protractor vs. cartesian coordinates method
- 2d & 3d survey
- intersections for detail when appropriate
- elevation points VIPs
- closed traverse

**leveling survey**: basic concept, methods; turning points, fore- & backsights, when to add, when to subtract, H.I.**telemetry**: radiotelemetry, satellite telemetry, GPS + transmitted positions**stadia, stadia rod**: using for distance, similar triangle, telescopic alidade, transit, level**plane table survey**- basic idea, method, equipment, alidade
- baseline & detail

- Purposes of GPS: position & navigation
- Alternatives: celestial, LORAN, SATNAV
- Design of the GPS: Dept of Defense, NAVSTAR, 24 SVs.
- Accuracy: RMSE, variables,
- Grades of instruments: survey, differential, handheld
- Vertical (1.5-3x) vs. horizontal accuracy
- Concepts of Satellite Ranging: L1 & L2 pseudorandom codes, time delay, trilateration
- Accurate time required (3d purpose of GPS: time standard); use of UTC
- WGS 84 datum
- Sources of error
- Geometric Dilution of Precision, causes and effects
- Differential GPS
- Post-processing vs. in-the-field, advantages/disadvantages
- Other GPS-like systems: GLONASS, Galileo (down the road)

**Formulating the Problem**: question/problem/hypothesis, preliminary data requirements, study area**Project Planning**: source materials, reconnaissance, pilot study, operational data requirements, project time & personnel, equipment & materials, public relations & access**Field Data Collection****Processing, Analysis, Synthesis**

**Scale**: extensive & intensive, maybe both**Sampling Units**: point, area, linear, plotless (for density: closest individual 2, nearest neighbor 1.67, random pairs 0.8, point-center quarter 1 : density per hectare =10000/k D2 )**Point Sampling**: for actual point-related measures; finding point locations: resection, GPS**Area (plot, quadrat) sampling**- fixed plots: phenomena-area curve, orientation & distribution
- variable plots

**Linear (transect) sampling**- 1D, 2D, quadrats along a transect
**plotless sampling units**: four methods**Spatial Sampling design**- hierarchical
- random
- systematic spatial
- stratified
- systematic stratified unaligned

**Statistical Analysis & Sample Size**

**Form**- morphometry and mapping
- general and specific morphometry
- hillslope form, slope elements, relate to hazard
- drainage basin morphometry; watershed concept
- stream channel form: cross section, bankfull, longitudinal profile, planform (habit),

**Material Properties**(e.g. physical properties: particle size, porosity, etc.)**Process**e.g. weathering, karst, slope development, fluvial transport processes, coastal, wind, etc. How do you measure discharge in a stream?**Landform Evolution**: isotope dating, sediment sequences, determining ages of events, relationship to past environments/climates

- Types of Data Loggers
- Strip-Chart Recorders
- Advantages & disadvantages
- Computers
- Advantages & disadvantages
- Datalogger Boards in pcs (impractical for field work mainly for labs)
- Programmable Calculator-based dataloggers (HP & TI)
- Programmable Microcontrollers (Blue Earth, Basic Stamp)
- Programmable Dataloggers (Campbell)
- Simple Dataloggers (Omega, Onset HOBO): (Simple to use, but cant program so cant control power supply, other circuits.)