Geog 602: Field Methods in Geography
Study Guide, Fall 2001
for all methods: idea of spatial control, control framework, details, use of basic trig
- measuring distance: tape, pacing, time, triangulation,
- triangles: similar triangles, right triangles & simple
trigonometry; know the basic equations and how to use them (yes, you can
bring a calculator)
- horizontal & vertical distance: and how to derive them
from slope distance & vertical angle; how do you measure tree or other
- angles: horizontal & vertical.
- azimuth: magnetic & true; magnetic declination; local
- instruments: compass, clinometer, transit, level
- geographic position: coordinate systems
- basic survey principles: control, constraining a sketch
- triangulation & intersection: for finding a point by
intersecting rays from two known points.
- chain-trilateration survey measuring distance, etc.
- compass traverse method we used equipment, measurements
- protractor vs. cartesian coordinates method
- 2d & 3d survey
- intersections for detail when appropriate
- elevation points VIPs
- closed traverse
- leveling survey: basic concept, methods; turning points, fore-
& backsights, when to add, when to subtract, H.I.
- telemetry: radiotelemetry, satellite telemetry, GPS +
- stadia, stadia rod: using for distance, similar triangle,
telescopic alidade, transit, level
- plane table survey
- basic idea, method, equipment, alidade
- baseline & detail
- Purposes of GPS: position & navigation
- Alternatives: celestial, LORAN, SATNAV
- Design of the GPS: Dept of Defense, NAVSTAR, 24 SVs.
- Accuracy: RMSE, variables,
- Grades of instruments: survey, differential, handheld
- Vertical (1.5-3x) vs. horizontal accuracy
- Concepts of Satellite Ranging: L1 & L2 pseudorandom codes, time
- Accurate time required (3d purpose of GPS: time standard); use of
- WGS 84 datum
- Sources of error
- Geometric Dilution of Precision, causes and effects
- Differential GPS
- Post-processing vs. in-the-field, advantages/disadvantages
- Other GPS-like systems: GLONASS, Galileo (down the road)
- Formulating the Problem: question/problem/hypothesis, preliminary data requirements, study area
- Project Planning: source materials, reconnaissance, pilot study, operational data requirements, project time & personnel, equipment & materials, public relations & access
- Field Data Collection
- Processing, Analysis, Synthesis
- Scale: extensive & intensive, maybe both
- Sampling Units: point, area, linear, plotless (for density: closest individual 2, nearest neighbor 1.67, random pairs 0.8, point-center quarter 1 : density per hectare =10000/k D2)
- Point Sampling: for actual point-related measures; finding point locations: resection, GPS
- Area (plot, quadrat) sampling
- fixed plots: phenomena-area curve, orientation & distribution
- variable plots
- Linear (transect) sampling
- 1D, 2D, quadrats along a transect
- plotless sampling units: four methods
- Spatial Sampling design
- systematic spatial
- systematic stratified unaligned
- Statistical Analysis & Sample Size
I'll get a question or two from Barbara.
Be able to distinguish these four types of studies, and how they might relate
(e.g. you might study the form of a stream cross-section over time to understand process and
landform evolution and you might sample streambed materials for the same study.
Know specifics about italicized things:
- morphometry and mapping
- general and specific morphometry
- hillslope form, slope elements, relate to hazard
- drainage basin morphometry; watershed concept
- stream channel form: cross section, bankfull, longitudinal profile, planform (habit),
- Material Properties (e.g. physical properties: particle size, porosity, etc.)
- Process e.g. weathering, karst, slope development, fluvial transport processes, coastal, wind, etc.
How do you measure discharge in a stream?
- Landform Evolution: isotope dating, sediment sequences, determining ages of events, relationship to past environments/climates
- Types of Data Loggers
- Strip-Chart Recorders
- Advantages & disadvantages
- Advantages & disadvantages
- Datalogger Boards in pcs (impractical for field work mainly for labs)
- Programmable Calculator-based dataloggers (HP & TI)
- Programmable Microcontrollers (Blue Earth, Basic Stamp)
- Programmable Dataloggers (Campbell)
- Simple Dataloggers (Omega, Onset HOBO):
(Simple to use, but cant program so cant control power supply, other circuits.)
Human Interviews and Questionnaires
The who, what, where, when, why, and how of interviews & questionnaires.
Issues faced when planning an interview or questionnaire. Concept of
stratification as applied to these. I'll get a question or two from Nancy.