Study Questions for Mid-term Exam


1. "The road to Paris is through Peking and Calcutta." What is the significance of this quote in terms of the relationship between Marxist-Leninist thought and foreign policy strategies of Communist nations?


2. In what ways has the Chinese physical setting influenced their worldview and consequent foreign policy behavior? Be specific.


3. Describe the contributing factors to the 100 year disintegration of the traditional Confucian order. Do you think anything could have been done to preserve this system? Why or why not?


4. 'The Chinese masses are China's joy and sorrow." Comment in terms of the problem of development in today's China.


5. Identify and discuss the strategy of the Chinese Communist Party in its effort to establish the right to the "Mandate of Heaven."


6. Was the "Yenan Way", described in Red Star Over China good or bad for China?


7. Identify and discuss the "Four Political Imperatives." Do you believe there was a better way to win the right to rule? Why or why not.


8. "The Sino-centric model for inter-state relations is superior to the Western nation-state model." Comment.


9. Describe the Canton system and explain why it failed.


10. "China has stood up." Mao Zedong. Comment on the background and significance of Mao's statement.


11. Experts on Chinese foreign policy behavior often point to the impact of the past on current Chinese ways of thinking about their relationships with foreigners. Comment on the validity of this contention by referring to practices and/or events from the past.


12. Describe the workings of the tribute system. Why did the foreign rulers tend to accept it so readily?


13. The British East Indies monopoly fit like a glove into the Chinese perception of proper trading relationships with the barbarians from outside the Sinic zone.


14. " The KMT had little or no chance to gain the Mandate of Heaven." Comment.


15. "China, not being a Christian nation, its inhabitants do not consider themselves bound by the Christian precept to love thy neighbor as themselves....This is a churlish and unsocial system.... The fundamental principle of the Chinese empire is anti-commercial....It admits no obligation to hold commercial intercourse with others.... It is time that this enormous outrage upon the rights of nations should cease." John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States. Comment on this quote in terms of the impact on the Chinese worldview of the leadership of China from the Imperial Past to the Present.


16. "It was almost inevitable that a China led by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist party would lean to the Soviet side at the end of World War II." Comment on the validity of this quote from your knowledge of Chinese foreign policy strategies at the end of World War II.


17. "The mass line is true democracy in action." Comment.


18. The essential elements of the Soviet model are............ Complete and comment.


19. " A revolution is not a tea party." If you had been guiding the Chinese toward national unity and modernization would you have used the techniques imposed by the Chinese Communist Party? Why or why not?


20. "Marxism-Leninism is alien to Chinese thought and traditions. Thus it will never become firmly implanted in the minds of the Chinese people." Comment


21. Describe the impact of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution on Chinese foreign policy. What relationship, if any, did it have on the Sino-Soviet dispute?


22. "Chinese intervention into the Korean War shaped the international political system for approximately two decades." Comment.


23. "The Chinese revolutionary model shows the way to liberation for the imperialized countries of the world." Comment upon this quote by indicating what role the Chinese model may have for those developing countries who are seeking the road to independence and modernization.



24. Lucien Pye argues that there is a difference between a rebellion and a revolution. What (according to him) are these differences? In light of these differences, would you describe the Taiping Rebellion as a rebellion or a revolution? Why?


25. The system of "extraterritoriality" first introduced to China by the Americans in the first half of the 19th Century helped produce a rallying cry for revolution in the 20th Century; yet the Americans continued to paint themselves as "friends of China." On what possible basis could this claim be rationally made, if at all?


26. Why do some experts contend that Mao’s relationship with his father was a key to the later behavior of Mao Zedong as a revolutionary leader and ruler?


27. Why did Mao Zedong and his followers launch the Cultural Revolution? Do you think that there was any real basis underlying the rationale for actions of this kind?


28. What combination of values, attitudes, images and emotions was instrumental in causing the newly established Communist regime to "lean to one side" in the early Cold War?


29. "Runaway inflation is a sign of the withdrawal of the "mandate of heaven." From your knowledge of Chinese experience in the post-World War II period, what strategies and tactics did the Chinese Communists develop to keep inflation under control?


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